|De Lucca Ii, Anthony|
Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/20/2011
Publication Date: 5/20/2011
Citation: De Lucca II, A.J., Heden, L.-O., Ingber, B.F., Bhatnagar, D. 2011. Antifungal properties of wheat histones (H1-H4) and purified wheat histone H1. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59:6933-6939. Interpretive Summary: The DNA in wheat seeds is tightly packaged by proteins called histones. There are four such histones; H1, H2, H3, and H4. These histones were extracted from wheat seeds with H1 purified from this histone mixture. They were tested for their antifungal fungicidal properties against fungi with varying degrees of pathogenicity for wheat. These fungi included Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides, F. solani, F. graminearum, Penicillium digitatum, P. italicum, and Greeneria uvicola. The nongerminated and germinating spores of these species were assayed separately. Both nongerminated and germinating spores of all Fusarium species were susceptible to the histone mixture and purified H1. Lethality was significant with 99-100% lethality obtained with concentrations of 10µM or less for both the histone mixture and pure H1. F. graminearum was the most sensitive of all the fungal species tested. The histones were inactive against the nongerminated spores of the Penicillium species. However, they were significantly lethal for the germinating spores, with 95% lethality achieved at 2.5µM. The viability of the nongerminated and germinating spores of the Aspergillus species and G. uvicola were unaffected. The data indicates that, of the tested genera, wheat histones are most active against Fusarium, the fungal genus that cause disease in wheat.
Technical Abstract: Wheat (Triticum sp.) histones H1, H2, H3, and H4 were extracted. H1 was further purified. Their activities against fungi with varying degrees of wheat pathogenicity were determined. They included Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides, F. solani, F. graminearum, Penicillium digitatum, P. italicum, and Greeneria uvicola. Nongerminated and germinating conidia were bioassayed separately. Both conidial types of all Fusarium species were susceptible to the mixture (H1-H4) and pure H1. Viability loss (99-100%) was significant (p <0.001) at is equal to or less than 10µM or less for the histone mixture and pure H1. F. graminearum was the most sensitive to histone activity. The histones were inactive against the nongerminated Penicillium species conidia. However, they significantly reduced the germinating conidial viability, with 95% loss at 2.5µM of the Penicillium sp. Nongerminated and germinating conidial viability of the Aspergillus species and G. uvicola were unaffected.