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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania » Eastern Regional Research Center » Dairy and Functional Foods Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #257723

Title: Crispy and crunchy textures: a critical evaluation of rigid foods

item Tunick, Michael
item Onwulata, Charles
item Thomas-Gahring, Audrey
item Phillips, John
item PIMENTEL, MARIANA - Universidade De Campinas (UNICAMP)
item Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan
item Sheen, Shiowshuh - Allen
item COOKE, PETER - New Mexico State University
item Liu, Cheng Kung
item Latona, Nicholas - Nick

Submitted to: International Journal of Food Science and Technology
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/15/2011
Publication Date: 4/2/2013
Citation: Tunick, M.H., Onwulata, C.I., Thomas-Gahring, A.E., Phillips, J.G., Pimentel, M.R., Mukhopadhyay, S., Sheen, S., Cooke, P.H., Liu, C., Latona, N.P. 2013. Crispy and crunchy textures: a critical evaluation of rigid foods. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 16(5):949-963. DOI:10.1080/10942912.2011.573116

Interpretive Summary: n/a

Technical Abstract: The textural attributes of crispness and crunchiness are important factors in the enjoyment of many foods, but they are defined differently among dictionaries, consumers, and researchers. Sensory, mechanical, and acoustic methods have been used to provide data on crispness and crunchiness. Sensory measurements include biting force and sound intensity. Mechanical techniques resemble mastication and include flex, shear, and compression. Acoustical techniques measure frequency, intensity, and number of sound events. Water activity and oil content contribute to crispness and crunchiness, which also have temporal aspects. Information in the literature is compared in this paper to develop unambiguous definitions of crispness and crunchiness.