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Title: Avian influenza viruses and avian paramyxoviruses in wintering and breeding waterfowl populations in North Carolina, USA

Author
item Goekjian, Virginia - University Of Georgia
item Smith, Jennifer - University Of Georgia
item Howell, Doug - North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission
item Senne, Dennis - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
item Swayne, David
item Stallknecht, David - University Of Georgia

Submitted to: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/20/2011
Publication Date: 1/1/2011
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/60729
Citation: Goekjian, V.H., Smith, J.T., Howell, D.L., Senne, D.A., Swayne, D.E., Stallknecht, D.D. 2011. Avian influenza viruses and avian paramyxoviruses in wintering and breeding waterfowl populations in North Carolina, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 47(1):240-245.

Interpretive Summary: Wild ducks are recognized as a common source of avian influenza (AIV) and avian paramyxoviruses (APMV), but we do not know how often they are infected in breeding and migratory duck populations on North American wintering grounds. Migrating (n=2,889) and non-migrating resident breeding (n=524) ducks were sampled in North Carolina during winter 2004-2006 and summer 2005-2006, respectively. The overall rate of finding AIV was a low 0.8%, but the rate was highest in Black Ducks (7%) and Northern Shoveler (8%). Of the 24 AIV, 16 subtypes were detected representing nine hemagglutinin and seven neuraminidase subtypes. Avian paramyxoviruses detected in wintering birds included 18 APMV-1, 15 APMV-4, and one APMV-6. During the summers of both 2005 and 2006, an outbreak of APMV-1 was observed in resident breeding Wood Ducks and Mallards.

Technical Abstract: Although wild ducks are recognized reservoirs for avian influenza (AIV) and avian paramyxoviruses (APMV), information related to the prevalence of these viruses in breeding and migratory duck populations on North American wintering grounds is limited. Wintering (n=2,889) and resident breeding (n=524) ducks were sampled in North Carolina during winter 2004-2006 and summer 2005-2006, respectively. Overall prevalence of AIV was 0.8% and restricted to the winter sample; however, prevalence in species within the genus Anas was 1.3% and was highest in Black Ducks (7%, Anas rubripes) and Northern Shoveler (8%, Anas clypeata). Of the 24 AIV, 16 subtypes were detected representing nine hemagglutinin and seven neuraminidase subtypes. Avian paramyxoviruses detected in wintering birds included 18 APMV-1, 15 APMV-4, and one APMV-6. During the summers of both 2005 and 2006, an outbreak of APMV-1 was observed in resident breeding Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) and Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).