|De Los Santos, Teresa|
Submitted to: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/1/2011
Publication Date: 8/1/2011
Citation: Golde, W.T., De Los Santos, T.B., Robinson, L., Grubman, M.J., Sevilla, N., Summerfield, A. 2011. Evidence of activation and suppression during the early immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 58(4):283-290. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a serious disease of livestock species, threatening free global trade and food security. The disease spreads rapidly between animals, and in order to ensure a window of opportunity for such spread the virus has evolved multiple mechanisms to subvert the early immune response. The cycle of infection in the individual animal is very short, infection is initiated, disseminated throughout the body and infectious virus produced in less than seven days. FMDV has been shown to disrupt the innate response of its very first target cells in the epithelium of the soft palate and pharynx, but also interacts directly with antigen-presenting cells and their precursors. This interaction results in sub-optimal immune function, favouring viral replication and the delayed onset of effective immunity. Detailed understanding of this cycle is crucial to effectively control disease in livestock populations. Improved understanding will inform the design of vaccines and antiviral therapies and add more precision to disease transmission models, which will ultimately refine disease control protocols.