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Title: Genetic diversity of Toxoplama gondii isolates from cats from Egypt reveals new genotypes

item AL-KAPPANY, Y - Collaborator
item ABU-ELWAFA, S - Mansoura University
item RAJENDRAN, C - Collaborator
item HILALI, M - Cairo University
item SU, C - University Of Tennessee
item Dubey, Jitender

Submitted to: Journal of Parasitology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/1/2010
Publication Date: 2/1/2011
Citation: Al-Kappany, Y.M., Abu-Elwafa, S.A., Rajendran, C., Hilali, M., Su, C., Dubey, J.P. 2011. Genetic diversity of Toxoplama gondii isolates from cats from Egypt reveals new genotypes. Journal of Parasitology. 96:1112-1114.

Interpretive Summary: Toxoplasma gondii is a single-celled parasite of all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. It causes mental retardation and loss of vision in children, and abortion in livestock. Cats are the main reservoir of T. gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the resistant stage (oocyst) of the parasite in the feces. Humans become infected by eating undercooked meat from infected animals and food and water contaminated with oocysts. In the present study scientists document genotyping of viable Toxoplasma from cats from Egypt. The results will be of interest to biologists, parasitologists, and veterinarians.

Technical Abstract: Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, 115 viable T. gondii isolates from tissues of cats from Egypt were genotyped using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) and DNA from tachyzoites. Eight genotypes were recognized including the clonal Type II (2 genotypes), Type III (2 genotypes) and 4 atypical genotypes. Ninety percent (103 of 115) isolates were clonal-- Type II (n=61) and Type III (n=42) strains. Of the 61 Type II stains, all had the type II alleles at all loci except 2 strains had allele I at Apico. Of the 42 Type III strains, 41 had type III alleles at all loci except 1 isolate had type I allele at Apico. Eight isolates were divided into 4 atypical genotypes. One of these genotypes (with 4 isolates) was previously reported in dogs from Sri Lanka and in Sand cats from United Arab Emirates. Four isolates had mixed infection. These results revealed a strong clonal population structure with the dominance of clonal Type II and III lineages of T. gondii in feral cats from Egypt.