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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARID RANGELANDS

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Title: Long-term trends in climate and climate-related drivers)

Author
item Peters, Debra - Deb
item Laney, Christine
item Lugo, Ariel
item Collins, Scott
item Driscoll, Charles
item Groffman, Peter
item Grove, J. morgan
item Knapp, Alan
item Kratz, Timothy
item Ohman, Mark

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/15/2011
Publication Date: 11/20/2013
Citation: Peters, D.C., Laney, C.M., Lugo, A.E., Collins, S.L., Driscoll, C.T., Groffman, P.M., Grove, J., Knapp, A.K., Kratz, T.K., Ohman, M.D. 2013. Long-term trends in climate and climate-related drivers. In: Peters, D.P.C., Laney, C.M., Lugo, A.E., et al., editors. Long-Term Trends in Ecological Systems: A Basis for Understanding Responses to Global Change. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Technical Bulletin Number 1931. p. 81-114.

Interpretive Summary: This chapter first describes common methods to measure climate and climate-related drivers and the rationale for the selection of variables in this book. It then shows graphs of climate data through time for each site, and summary maps at the continental scale. On land, air temperature (mean, minimum, and maximum), precipitation, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and Walter-Lieth climate diagrams are selected. In water, streamflow, sea level, ice duration, water clarity, and water temperature are selected. Two types of graphs are included to show trends in the variables and to provide a sense of change across a range of spatial scales (continent, site) for each variable: maps at continental scale showing either the mean across years or the slope of the regression line (if significant) across time, and site-scale data through time. Air temperatures are increasing in at least one variable (minimum, mean, maximum) for 27 of the 50 sites. Sea level is increasing at all 11 coastal sites. Observing these trends in climate across multiple ecosystems across continents is only possible with spatially extensive, long-term data collection and analysis, such as provided by the EcoTrends Project.

Technical Abstract: This chapter shows long-term data and trends in climate and climate-related drivers for each site. It contains a brief introduction to the topic, and methods of measurements, selection of variables, and their data source. It consists primarily of a large number of figures showing long-term data for different variables. On land, air temperature (mean, minimum, and maximum), precipitation, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and Walter-Lieth climate diagrams are selected. In water, streamflow, sea level, ice duration, water clarity, and water temperature are selected. Two types of graphs are included to show trends in the variables and to provide a sense of change across a range of spatial scales (continent, site) for each variable: maps at continental scale showing either the mean across years or the slope of the regression line (if significant) across time, and site-scale data through time. Air temperatures are increasing in at least one variable (minimum, mean, maximum) for 27 of the 50 sites. Sea level is increasing at all 11 coastal sites. Observing these trends in climate across multiple ecosystems across continents is only possible with spatially extensive, long-term data collection and analysis, such as provided by the EcoTrends Project.

Last Modified: 8/24/2016
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