Submitted to: Peanut Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/1/2011
Publication Date: 5/11/2011
Citation: Dean, L.L., Whitley, M.L., Hendrix, K., Sanders, T.H. 2011. Environmental and varietal effects on the niacin content of raw and roasted peanuts. Peanut Science. 38(1):20-25.
Interpretive Summary: Niacin is an important B vitamin that is needed for many human enzyme functions involving energy metabolism. Peanuts are considered an important source of niacin as they have been found to contain about 20% of the daily recommended intake in a one ounce serving. Samples from the Uniform Peanut Performance Test (UPPT) were used to determine niacin content in 2 common varieties of peanuts in 10 different locations across the US and in 2 different years. It was found that although there was not much change from year to year, there was a difference in the niacin content of the peanuts grown in different locations. Higher values were found in the samples grown in the Western locations. A limited number of samples from the peanut germplasm collection were tested for niacin content to determine if it would be possible to increase the amount of niacin present by conventional breeding. The range of the values was within the range of the UPPT varieties indicating that an increase would probably not be possible by such techniques.
Technical Abstract: Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are known to be a source of several important B-vitamins, including niacin (Vitamin B3). A total of 39 Florunner and NC7 samples from the 2007 and 2008 Uniform Peanut Performance Test (UPPT) were analyzed to compare their niacin content from 10 different growing locations in the U.S. From the Core of the Core of the peanut germplasm collection, 13 selected samples grown in North Carolina in 2008 were analyzed. The mean niacin concentration in raw Florunner increased from 14.7 mg/100g in 2007 to 17.4 mg/100g in 2008. For raw samples of NC7, the means increased from 16.4 mg/100g in 2007 to 18.9 mg/100g in 2008. The difference was significant between the two varieties in the UPPT and across growing locations, but did not prove to be significant across years. Overall, roasting did prove to have a significant effect on the niacin content with the range of the means found to be 12.2 to 22.4 mg/100g. The mean niacin concentration of the Core of the Core samples were found to range from 10.0 to 18.3 mg/100g. The differences found due to variety and location were attributed to interactions between genetics and environment; however, difference among the Core of the Core samples suggest that germplasm differences may not be sufficient for increases in niacin levels through conventional breeding.