Location: Arkansas Children's Nutrition CenterTitle: Growth and development during the first year of life of infants fed breast-milk, milk formula or soy formula Author
Submitted to: Pediatric Academic Society
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/15/2010
Publication Date: 5/12/2010
Publication URL: http://www.abstracts2view.com/pas/sessionindex.php?session=10GPPL04&day=Tuesday&#session_10GP.PL04
Citation: Andres, A., Casey, P.H., Badger, T.M. 2010. Growth and development during the first year of life of infants fed breast-milk, milk formula or soy formula [abstract]. Pediatric Academic Society. Online Abstract Viewer. E-PAS2010:4104.4. Interpretive Summary: The adequacy of soy infant formulas to support growth and development is still under debate. The objective of this study was to measure growth and development of infants fed breast-milk, milk formula and soy formula during the first year of life. This first analysis of the Beginnings study suggested that soy formulas support growth and development in similar manner as milk formulas. The differences were observed mostly between breast-fed and formula-fed infants.
Technical Abstract: The adequacy of soy infant formulas to support growth and development is still under debate. The concerns center on the phytochemicals such as isoflavones which are associated with the soy proteins, the sole source of protein in soy infant formulas. To assess growth and development of infants fed breast-milk, milk formula, and soy formula during the first year of life. A sub cohort of the ongoing longitudinal Beginnings study was used to assess anthropometrics, body composition, dietary intake, and mental and motor development (BSID-II) at 3, 6, 9 and 12 mo in breastfed (BF, N=106), milk formula fed (MF, N=110), and soy formula fed (SF, N=103) infants. Multivariate analyses were performed with repeated measures. Covariates included gestational age, birth weight, birth length, age of exclusive formula feeding, age at the time of measurement and IQ of the participant's mother. Birth weight was lower in SF compared to BF and MF (3.4 vs.3.5 and 3.6 kg, p<0.05). Exclusive formula feeding was established on average within the first 3 weeks for both the MF and SF groups. After controlling for birth weight, birth length and age at the time of measurement, average weight was lower in BF compared to MF and SF at 6, 9 and 12 mo (p<0.05), and average length was greater in MF and SF compared to BF by 12 mo (P<0.05). Prevalence of overweight (>85th on the weight-for-length CDC growth charts) at 12 mo was greater in MF and SF compared to BF (37, 36 and 20%, respectively). Fat Mass (PeaPod) was overall lower in SF than BF from 2 to 6 mo (p<0.05). Mental development was significantly higher in BF compared to MF and SF (P<0.05) even after controlling for IQ of the participant's mother. Nevertheless, mental scores were all within the normal limits. When caloric intake was stratified by BMI of the mothers, SF and MF infants had significantly higher caloric intake than BF infant in the maternal overweight and obese group compared to the lean group (p<0.05). There were no differences in birth length, gestational age, head circumference, triceps skinfold, mid arm circumference, dietary intake, fat mass (DXA) and motor development across groups. This preliminary analysis of the ongoing, Beginnings cohort suggests that soy formulas support growth and development in similar manner as milk formulas. Statistically significant differences were observed mostly between breast-fed and formula-fed infants.