|Dagraca, John V.|
|Dixon, Wayne N.|
|Sieburth, Peggy J.|
|Williams, Lisa L.|
|Wright, Glenn C.|
Submitted to: Citrograph
Publication Type: Trade Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/20/2010
Publication Date: 6/20/2010
Citation: Vidalakis, G., Dagraca, J., Dixon, W., Ferrin, D., Kesinger, M., Krueger, R., Lee, R.F., Olive, J., Polek, M., Sieburth, P., Williams, L., Wright, G. 2010. Citrus quarantine, sanitary and certification programs in the USA. Prevention of introduction and distribution of citrus diseases. 1. Citrus quarantine and introduction process. Citrograph. 1(3):26-35. 2. Highlights of new California citrus nursery regulations. Citrograph. 1(4):27-39. Interpretive Summary: This article is a brief review of the citrus quarantine, sanitary, and certification programs in California, Florida, Texas, Arizona, Louisiana, and Alabama. A brief outline is presented for each of the citrus programs in each state, along with contact information. The purpose and benefits of the National Citrus Germplasm Passport Program is described. The newly formed Citrus Clean Plant Network, organized as a part of the National Clean Plant Network, to provide high quality asexually propagated plant material free of targeted plant pathogens and pests that cause economic loss to protect the environment and ensure the global competitiveness of specialty crop producers is discussed.
Technical Abstract: Citrus germplasm originated in Australasia, the Far East, and Africa, thus all citrus grown in the New World was imported. This importation of citrus also resulted in importation of graft transmissible pathogens of citrus, many of which are latent in their original host but can cause epidemics of tree loss if given the right opportunity, such as quick decline epidemics on sour orange rootstock due to tristeza in the 1940s in South America. Protocols for the detection and elimination of graft transmissible pathogens of citrus have been developed, initially lead by the University of California, Riverside with the formation of the first citrus certification program, which is now the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP). Currently there are two state programs (in California the CCPP located in Riverside with a Foundation Block in Lindcove, and in Florida the Citrus Germplasm Introduction Program (CGIP) located in Gainesville) which are permitted by USDA APHIS to import citrus germplasm under quarantine, conduct therapy by established protocols, and make this available for use by their respective industries. The third program with a permit for importation of citrus germplasm under quarantine for release to the industry is the USDA ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Citrus and Dates (NCGRCD) located in Riverside, CA. While the NCGRCD performs the same protocols as the CCPP and CGIP, their emphasis is on the collection and preservation of genetic diversity for future use; they serve the entire USA and distribute materials free of charge to qualified scientists and certification programs. In Florida the Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration handles the budwood distribution and certification. Arizona and Texas do not have quarantine-introduction programs so citrus budwood is acquired from recognized introduction programs (CA or FL). They maintain, re-test and distribute budwood to their industries through the Arizona Certified Budwood Program and the Texas A & M University-Kingsville Citrus Center Program, respectively. The development of a National Citrus Germplasm Passport Program (NCGPP) is underway in order to facilitate the proper exchange of citrus genetic material among the states and national citrus programs. The NCGPP will provide a safe mechanism for the exchange of citrus germplasm by setting the minimal standards for introduction, shipping preparation, core disease testing, and therapy. Such a national standard for citrus germplasm would be useful for international organizations, such as the North American Plant Protection Organization, bypassing the issue of multiple state standards.