Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/18/2003
Publication Date: 3/1/2004
Citation: Bett Garber, K.L., Champagne, E.T., Ingram, D.A., Grimm, C.C. 2004. Impact of iron source and concentration on rice flavor using a simulated rice kernel micronutrient delivery system. Cereal Chemistry. C-2004-0324-07R. Interpretive Summary: Extruded kernels resembling rice were fortified with elemental iron or iron sulfate to determine the effects of iron fortification on table rice flavor. The effects of other nutrients (zinc, thiamin and folic acid) were included in the experiment. Elemental iron had sell detrimental effects on rice flavor than iron sulfate. There was less development of off-flavors, such as sour taste and water-like flavor and less change in typical rice flavors such as grain/starchy. The other nutrients affected flavor, also. Storage stability of the extruded kernels were monitored by development of lipid oxidation products. Kernels with elemental iron were more stable than those with iron sulfate.
Technical Abstract: An extruded grain designed to look like a rice kernel fortified with one of two sources of iron (elemental iron and ferrous sulfate), with and without multiple fortificant (zinc, thiamin and folic acid) was mixed with milled Calrose rice at low (1:200), medium (1:100) and high (1:50) concentrations. The intensities of water-like, sour taste, hay-like musty, and alfalfa/grassy/green bean flavors were enhanced by the addition of ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) or FeSO4 plus multiple fortificants. Astringent mouthfeel was likewise affected by addition of FeSO4 or FeSO4 plus multiple fortificants. Overall, the elemental iron with multiple fortificants affected the oxidation of the base rice the least. Lipid oxidation products in stored fortificant increased the first 2 to 3 months and concentrations were higher in samples with FeSO4 as the iron source.