|CHEN, WENLONG - North Dakota State University|
|BOETEL, MARK - North Dakota State University|
Submitted to: Environmental Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/28/2010
Publication Date: 10/1/2010
Citation: Chen, W., Leopold, R.A., Boetel, M.A. 2010. Host plant effects on development and reproduction of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Environmental Entomology. 39(5): 1545-1553.
Interpretive Summary: The dietary effects of feeding by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) on 3 different plants were studied under laboratory conditions. Information was obtained on the effects on reproduction, egg laying, development, survival, and several demographic parameters. The host plants included sunflower, chrysanthemum, and a shrub called euonymus. The number of eggs/egg mass deposited on these plants was similar. The hatching of eggs laid on these plants was highest on euonymus and lowest on sunflower. However, the nymphs grew to adulthood the fastest and survived the best when allowed to feed solely on sunflower plants. Nymphs growing to adulthood when fed only euonymus plants were unable to reproduce because mating did not occur. The time to first mating was shortest and the percentage mating highest when adults were fed sunflower plants. Adult females had similar life spans on sunflower and chrysanthemum, the sex ratio did not vary from 1:1 regardless of host plant used for rearing the GWSS. The longest egg laying period and the most eggs deposited were obtained when adult females were allowed to feed on sunflower plants. The greatest rate of increase, the shortest population doubling time and the net reproductive rate was best when the insects were fed sunflower plants. The overall developmental and reproductive parameters obtained in this study suggest that a mixed host plant system, composed of sunflower and euonymus or chrysanthemum plants, is most the efficient means for optimizing egg production and colony maintenance of the glass-winged sharpshooter.
Technical Abstract: Development, survivorship, longevity, reproduction and life table parameters of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), were examined in the laboratory using three host plants, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Chrysanthemum morifolium L. and euonymus (Euonymus japonica Thurb.). Females deposited similar-sized egg masses on all three plants. Percent hatch was highest (86.1%) in insects deposited on euonymus and lowest (23.4%) for those oviposited on sunflower. Embryonic development time among host plants was similar, ranging from 8.3-9.4 d. Nymph development time was shortest (35.5 d) on sunflower, intermediate (42.3 d) on chrysanthemum, and longest (87.4 d) on euonymus. Nymph survival to adulthood ranged from 32.3% on euonymus to 82.5% for those reared on sunflower. Adult females had similar life spans on sunflower and chrysanthemum. While H. vitripennis completed a lengthy egg-to-adult development on euonymus, mating did not occur. The onset of mating depends on maturation of adult females. About 67% of mating occurred within the first three days after the onset of mating activity. Pre-mating periods ranged from 6-7 d on sunflower to 27 d on chrysanthemum, with overall mating rates of 77.4 and 19.8%, respectively. Females typically mated more than once, and the frequency of brochosome production and application varied according to host plant. Females had the longest oviposition period and highest egg production on sunflower. About 50% and 67% of total number of eggs were deposited within first 45 d after onset of oviposition on sunflower and chrysanthemum, respectively. Adult size and weight were impacted by host plant nymphs fed on throughout their development, and both parameters were reduced when the sharpshooters were reared on euonymus. Sex ratio did not significantly differ from a 1:1 ratio, regardless of host plant used. Greater intrinsic and finite rates of increase and net reproduction rate, and shorter population doubling time occurred when the sharpshooters were allowed to develop on sunflower. The overall developmental and reproductive parameters obtained in this study suggest that a mixed host plant system, composed of sunflower and euonymus or chrysanthemum plants, is most the efficient means for optimizing egg production and colony maintenance of the glass-winged sharpshooter.