Submitted to: Nature Genetics
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/21/2011
Publication Date: 3/15/2011
Citation: Mitreva, M., Jasmer, D.P., Zarlenga, D.S., Wang, Z., Abubucker, S., Martin, J., Taylor, C., Fulton, L., Minx, P., Warren, W.C., Fulton, R.S., Hallsworth-Pepin, K., Clifton, S.W., Mccarter, J., Appleton, J., Mardis, E.R., Wilson, R.K. 2011. The draft genome of the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis. Nature Genetics. 43(3):228-235. Interpretive Summary: Adenophorean nematodes are the most evolutionarily distant group from the other classically studied species in the phylum Nematoda such as Caenorhabditis elegans. The genus Trichinella represents a basal or outgroup adenophorean for genome sequencing and for gaining deeper insight into the evolution of parasitic nematodes. Nematode characteristics that are universally conserved across the phylum could have a great value for control strategies with broad application. Herein we evaluate the completed genome sequence and transcriptome of Trichinella spiralis the most widespread within this genus. This data was used to investigate specific questions related to the biology and evolution of parasitic nematodes. This information, and that yet to come in conjunction with the relatively recent diversification of contemporary species provides expectations that this genome sequence will advance research related to parasitic nematodes across the phylum. More importantly, it will assist in developing control strategies currently unattainable due to the dearth of genetic information relating these organisms, and develop pan-phylum treatments for parasitic diseases including those that infect humans.
Technical Abstract: Genome-based studies of metazoan evolution are most informative when crown and basal species are incorporated in the analysis. As such, evolutionary trends within and outside the phylum Nematoda have been less revealing by focusing only on the crown species Caenorhabditis elegans. Herein, we present for the first time the complete nuclear genome of a basal parasitic nematode, Trichinella spiralis, and identify archetypical genes and molecular signatures exclusive to nematodes. Comparative analyses support intrachromosomal rearrangements across the phylum, disproportionate numbers of protein family deaths over births in parasitic vs free-living nematodes, and a preponderance of gene loss and gain events in nematodes relative to Drosophila melanogaster. This sequence and the pan-phylum characteristics will advance evolutionary studies, and new strategies to treat and/or eradicate global parasites of humans, food animals and crops.