Location: Obesity and Metabolism ResearchTitle: Assessing face validity of a physical activity questionnaire for Spanish-speaking women in California) Author
Submitted to: Journal of Extension
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/1/2011
Publication Date: 10/1/2011
Citation: Banna, J.C., Keim, N.L., Townsend, M.S. 2011. Assessing face validity of a physical activity questionnaire for Spanish-speaking women in California. Journal of Extension. Vol.49:5. Interpretive Summary: Currently, there are no physical activity surveys or evaluation tools that are aimed at individuals whose first language is Spanish. The purpose of this study was to create a Spanish-language physical activity questionnaire that is easy to read and culturally appropriate for use in the USDA food assistance and education programs that serve low-income clients. The English version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was translated to Spanish, photos were added to increase understanding of the questions, and then modified, based on feedback from the target population and Spanish translation experts. The resulting questionnaire was easy to read and understand and is ready for further testing of its accuracy for gauging physical activity levels of the target population.
Technical Abstract: Background: A review of the literature produced no rigorously tested and validated Spanish-language physical activity survey or evaluation tools for use by USDA’s food assistance and education programs. The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the face validity of a visually enhanced Spanish-language physical activity questionnaire adapted from the English version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Methods: The English version of the IPAQ was translated by one professional and subsequently reviewed by a panel of experts fluent in both languages and familiar with both cultures. Photos were added to reflect the population’s physical activity habits. Cognitive interviews were completed with low-income Spanish-speaking women in three California counties (n=20). Three different strategies- think-aloud, paraphrasing, and probing- were used to uncover respondents’ cognitive processes in answering questions. Results: Questionnaire text was modified in response to client suggestions. Spanish translation experts (n=7) made minor modifications to the resulting wording, but essentially agreed with the client recommendations. The questionnaire had a readability score of 98 using the Fernández-Huerta Reading Ease for the Spanish language. Conclusions: The Spanish-language questionnaire was found to have adequate face validity in the target population and is ready for further validation using criterion measures.