Submitted to: Journal of Zoonoses
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/18/2010
Publication Date: 4/1/2010
Citation: Davis, W.C., Park, K.T., Hamilton, M.J., Waters, W.R. 2010. Understanding the mechanisms of immunopathogenesis of human and bovine tuberculosis. Journal of Zoonoses. 1(1):17-23. Interpretive Summary: Despite highly successful eradication efforts in several countries, tuberculosis of cattle remains a serious health concern worldwide. In addition, recent outbreaks of tuberculosis in Michigan, Minnesota, California, New Mexico, Texas, Nebraska, and South Dakota demonstrate that the disease is far from eliminated in the United States. Improved techniques are needed for detection of infected cattle as well as improved control strategies (e.g., vaccines). To develop improved tests and vaccines, it is beneficial to first understand the nature of bovine immune responses to tuberculosis infection. In this review, the immune response of cattle to tuberculosis is described. This basic information will be useful for the understanding of the disease; thus, providing useful information for the developed of improved tests and vaccines.
Technical Abstract: Extensive investigations have revealed that zoonotic pathogens in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) evolved from a common ancestor. Although all the members can cause disease in one or more species of mammals, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and M. bovis (Mbv) are the major pathogens affecting humans and livestock. The pathogens are genetically distinct, but the mechanisms by which they dysregulate the immune response and cause disease are similar, suggesting a common strategy can be used to control both pathogens. Recent advances have shown NK and NKT cells, 'd T cells and multiple newly identified T cell subsets are involved in the immune response to mycobacteria. A complex network of cytokines regulates their response to mycobacteria during the development and loss of protective immunity. Elucidation of how mycobacteria modulate the network and cause disease will provide the knowledge needed to develop an effective vaccine.