|De Los Santos, Teresa|
Submitted to: The Springer Index of Viruses
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/6/2010
Publication Date: 10/21/2011
Citation: Grubman, M.J., De Los Santos, T.B. 2011. Aphthovirus. In: Tidona, Christian, Darai, Gholamreza, editors. The Springer Index of Viruses. 2nd edition. New York, NY: Springer. p. 1281-1286.
Technical Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. An outbreak of FMD can have a significant economic impact because of the restrictions on international trade of susceptible animals and their products with FMD-free countries. The disease is controlled by slaughter of infected and in-contact animals, restriction of animal movement, and vaccination. The current vaccine is a chemically inactivated whole virus antigen. Federal law does not allow work with FMD virus (FMDV) on the mainland and as a result the U.S. is dependent on foreign manufacturers for vaccine. Although the U.S. has not had an outbreak of FMD in over 80 years, there is concern of the threat of using FMDV as an agricultural bioterrorism weapon. As a result it is important to understand the aetiologic agent of the disease. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a member of the Aphthovirus genus, Picornavirus family. It is an antigenically variable virus that includes 7 serotypes and multiple subtypes within each serotype. The virus contains a single-stranded positive sense RNA genome of approximately 8500 bases that is encapsidated in a icosahedral particle containing 60 copies each of 4 structural proteins, VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4. The virus also codes for 10 nonstructural proteins. In this chapter we outline various aspects of the disease, the virus, and its interaction with the host. We describe the genome organization, list the receptors used by the virus to enter cells, the cellular location of replication, the viral encoded enzyme required for genome replication, and the viral proteinases required for protein processing. We list references that describe the history of the virus/disease including recent novel disease control methods including vectored subunit vaccines and antivirals. We also list methods of disease diagnosis. Finally we list key review articles describing, in depth, unique aspects of the disease and novel methods of disease control. Understanding the virus and the nature of the disease it causes is critical in developing improved disease detection methods and disease control procedures.