Location: Corn Insects and Crop Genetics ResearchTitle: Genetic and Sequence Analysis of Genes Controlling Natural Variation of Seed-Coat and Flower Colors in Soybean) Author
Submitted to: Journal of Heredity
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/31/2010
Publication Date: 11/1/2010
Citation: Yang, N., Moon, J., Lee, Y., Lee, S., Kim, H., Hwang, C., Back, K., Palmer, R.G., Jeong, S. 2010. Genetic and sequence analysis of genes controlling natural variation of seed-coat and flower colors in soybean. Journal of Heredity. 101(6):757-768. Interpretive Summary: Plants have many genetic traits (genes) controlling flower color and seed-coat color. In soybean, eight flower color and seed-coat color genes have been identified, but the genetics and molecular biology of these genes are not complete. Our objectives were to: 1) study the genetics and determine the molecular organization (gene sequence); and 2) to obtain the physical location of the genes on their respective chromosome. Our studies determined the identification of the enzymes in the biochemical pathways of the flower color and seed-coat color genes. The physical location of these genes will assist breeders in selection for desirable seed-coat color (yellow), or against self-colored seed-coat (brown, black, buff, etc.). Self-colored seeds tend to stain the oil extracted from seed, which adds further costs to remove the color from the oil.
Technical Abstract: The soybean exhibits natural variation in flower and seed-coat colors via the deposition of various anthocyanin pigments in the respective tissues. Although pigmentation in seeds or flowers has been well dissected at molecular level in several plant species, the genes controlling natural variation in anthocyanin traits in the soybean are not completely understood. To evaluate the genetic correlation between genetic loci and genes, eight enzyme-encoding gene families and a transcription factor were localized in a soybean genome-wide genetic map. Among the seed-coat color-controlling loci, the genetic location of the gene encoding for W1 was substantiated in the context of the current soybean molecular genetic map and O was postulated to correspond to anthocyanidin reductase. Among the genetic loci that regulate flower pigmentation, the genetic locations of the genes encoding for W1, W4, and Wp were identified, W3 was mapped on soybean linkage group B2 (chromosome 14), and W2 was postulated to correspond to a MYB transcription factor. Correlation studies between the developed markers and three color-controlling loci provided important empirical data that should prove useful in the design of marker-assisted breeding schemes as well as future association studies involving soybean.