|SHARMA, BRAJENDRA - University Of Pennsylvania|
Submitted to: Energy and Fuels
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/4/2010
Publication Date: 4/26/2010
Citation: Shah, S.N., Sharma, B.K., Moser, B.R. 2010. Preparation of Biofuel Using Acetylatation of Jojoba Fatty Alcohols and Assessment as a Blend Component in Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel. Energy and Fuels. 24:3189-3194.
Interpretive Summary: This study reveals that Jojoba oil is acceptable as an alternative domestic non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. Due to current debates about the fuel versus food and feed issue, alternative non-food feedstocks are a significant area of research. The objective of the current research was to explore a new class of biofuel which was prepared by acetylation of Jojobyl alcohols from Jojoba oil. In this study, Jojobyl methyl acetate (JMA) was produced using direct acetylation of purified jojobyl alcohol obtained during preparation of Jojoba oil methyl esters (JME). It was discovered that JMA-based biofuel displayed comparable low temperature properties and inferior kinematic viscosity versus JME biodiesel. Similarly, JMA-based biofuel blends (B5 and B20) in Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel (ULSD) displayed nearly the same low temperature properties in comparison to neat ULSD and blends of JME in ULSD. This research demonstrates utilization of a byproduct as feedstock for biodiesel preparation and establishes a new innovative class of biofuel which can be prepared by acetylation of fatty alcohols. In summary, this research will be helpful to biodiesel researchers, biodiesel manufacturers and biodiesel blenders to design biodiesel blends with ULSD from non-edible alternative feedstocks. The current study may eventually expand market penetration and society outlook of domestically created biodiesel, thus providing greater national self-reliance from imported petroleum-based fuels.
Technical Abstract: The majority of biodiesel fuels are produced from vegetable oils or animal fats by transesterification of oil with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. In this study, a new class of biofuel is explored by acetylation of fatty alcohols from Jojoba oil. Recently, we reported Jojoba oil methyl esters (JME) as biodiesel, which were prepared along with jojobyl alcohol from Jojoba oil (JO) with methanol using sodium methoxide as a catalyst1. In this study, Jojobyl methyl acetate (JMA) biodiesel was produced using direct acetylation of purified jojobyl alcohol obtained during preparation of JME. JMA was characterized by FTIR and NMR spectroscopic methods. Important fuel properties of JMA, such as kinematic viscosity, cloud point (CP), pour point (PP), cold filter plugging point (CFPP), acid value, oxidative stability, gross heat of combustion, and lubricity were evaluated using standard methods. A comparison was made with previously reported JME and relevant biodiesel fuel standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. The CP, CFPP and PP values of JMA were 2, -10, and -16 oC, respectively. These results were comparable to JME with the exception of a higher CP in the case of JMA. The kinematic viscosity (400C) of JMA was 7.64 mm2/s, which was higher than that observed for JME. Blends (B5 and B20) of JMA in ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) were also evaluated for the aforementioned fuel properties and compared to an analogous set of blends of JME in ULSD and relevant petrodiesel fuel standards such as ASTM D975 and D7467. Blends of JMA in ULSD displayed nearly the same low temperature properties in comparison to neat ULSD and blends of JME in ULSD. This research demonstrates utilization of a byproduct as feedstock for biofuel preparation and establishes a new innovative class of biofuel which can be prepared by acetylation of fatty alcohols.