Submitted to: Journal of Environmental Horticulture
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/25/2010
Publication Date: 6/1/2010
Publication URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10113/47424
Citation: Reding, M.E., Oliver, J., Schultz, P., Ranger, C.M. 2010. Monitoring Flight Activity of Ambrosia Beetles in Ornamental Nurseries with Ethanol-Baited Traps: Influence of Trap Height on Captures. Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 28:85-90. Interpretive Summary: The ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus crassiusculus and Xylosandrus germanus are serious pests in ornamental nurseries, attacking a wide variety of tree species. Management of ambrosia beetles in nurseries relies primarily on preventive treatments of insecticides applied to the trunks of trees. Timing insecticide controls for X. crassiusculus and X. germanus will be improved with a greater knowledge of their seasonal activity and ecological interactions with the nursery ecosystem. To develop a reliable monitoring system, ethanol-baited bottle traps were used to monitor spring flight activity of X. crassiusculus and X. germanus; and the effect of trap height on captures of X. crassiusculus and X. germanus was determined. Bottle traps suspended 0.5 m (19 in) above the ground were the most effective at capturing X. germanus, while traps at 0.5 m or 1.7 m (67 in) were similarly effective for X. crassiusculus. Our data indicate that bottle traps should be placed within 0.5 m or 1.7 m of the ground for best results in monitoring X. germanus or X. crassiusculus, respectively. If the trapping goal is to monitor both Xylosandrus species, the low height should be used. Spring activity of X. crassiusculus and X. germanus varied depending on year and location. First emergence of both species began late March to mid-April and was similar for both species where they occurred together. Peak activity varied depending on species, year and location, with peaks occurring from early April to late May. Monitoring should begin early in the season to effectively time preventive controls for these pests
Technical Abstract: Ethanol-baited bottle traps were used to monitor spring flight activity of the ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus crassiusculus and Xylosandrus germanus in Ohio, Tennessee, and Virginia. The traps were deployed at three different heights to determine if height influenced captures. X. germanus was captured in all three states, while X. crassiusculus was captured in TN and VA only. Traps 0.5 m above the ground captured more X. germanus than traps at 1.7 or 3.0 m. Traps 0.5 or 1.7 m above the ground captured more X. crassiusculus than traps at 3.0 m. In TN and VA, first activity of X. crassiusculus and X. germanus occurred from mid-March to early April. In OH, first activity of X. germanus occurred early to mid-April. Analysis of attacks by X. germanus on Cornus florida revealed that more than 90% of the attacks occurred on the main trunk within 1 m (3 ft) of the ground. Monitoring will be most effective when traps are suspended 0.5 m or < 1.7 m above the ground for X. germanus or X. crassiusculus, respectively. To detect first flight of X. crassiusculus or X. germanus, traps should be deployed by early to mid-March in TN and VA and late March in OH.