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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Evaluation of ULV and thermal fog mosquito control applications in temperate and desert environments

item Britch, Seth
item Linthicum, Kenneth - Ken
item Wynn, Willard
item Walker, Todd
item Farooq, Muhammad
item Smith, Vincent
item Robinson, Cathy
item Lothrop, Branka
item Snelling, Melissa
item Gutierrez, Arturo
item Lothrop, Hugh
item Kerce, Jerry
item Becnel, James
item Bernier, Ulrich - Uli
item Wei Pridgeon, Yuping

Submitted to: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/1/2009
Publication Date: 6/1/2010
Publication URL:
Citation: Britch, S.C., Linthicum, K., Wynn, W.W., Walker, T.W., Farooq, M., Smith, V.L., Robinson, C.A., Lothrop, B.B., Snelling, M., Gutierrez, A., Lothrop, H.D., Kerce, J.D., Becnel, J.J., Bernier, U.R., Wei Pridgeon, Y. 2010. Evaluation of ULV and thermal fog mosquito control applications in temperate and desert environments. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 26(2):183-197.

Interpretive Summary: Control of adult mosquitoes is critical to prevent and control disease outbreaks during certain situations where people are at high risk. One such situation is the case of deployed military troops who can particularly susceptible and exposed to disease carrying mosquitoes in field settings. In this study we examined 2 methods to control adult mosquitoes under hot dry and hot humid environmental conditions. In head-to-head comparisons between ultra low volume and thermal fog application methods to control adult mosquito species the thermal fog method proved to be superior in field tests conducted both in hot-dry conditions in California and hot-humid conditions in Florida.

Technical Abstract: Ultra low volume (ULV) and thermal fog aerosol dispersals of pesticides have been used against mosquitoes and other insects for half a century. Although each spray technology has advantages and disadvantages, only seven studies have been identified that directly compare their performance in the field. US military personnel currently operating in hot-arid environments, despite adulticide operations using modern pesticide delivery equipment such as ULV, are impacted by perpetual nuisance and disease vector insect problems. None of the identified comparative studies has looked at the relative feasibility and efficacy of ULV and thermal fog equipment against mosquitoes in hot arid environments. In this study we examine the impact of ULV and thermal fog applications of malathion against caged sentinel mosquitoes in the field in a warm temperate area of Florida, followed by a similar test in a hot-dry desert area of southern California. Patterns of mortality throughout 150 m x 150 m grids of sentinel mosquitoes indicate greater efficacy from the thermal fog application in both environments under suboptimal ambient weather conditions. We discuss the implications of these findings for future military preventive medicine activities and encourage further investigations into the relative merits of the two technologies for force health protection.

Last Modified: 10/17/2017
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