Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/20/2010
Publication Date: 4/20/2012
Citation: Marsh, L., Bechtel, P.J. 2012. Waste (By-Product) Utilization. In: Granata, L.A., Flick, G.J., Martin, R.E., editors. The Seafood Industry: Species, Products, Processing, and Safety. 2nd edition. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 128-135. Interpretive Summary: The rise in world population and standard of living for developing countries, coupled with an increasing understanding of the health aspects of a diet rich in seafood products increases the demand for seafood. At the same time, world fish landings remain flat or have slightly declined. The increasing demand for seafood is being met in part by aquacultured products, many of which require fish meal and/or fish oil in their feed formulation. This chapter deals with different aspects of seafood processing byproducts.
Technical Abstract: This chapter deals with different aspects of seafood processing byproducts. The production yield for whole raw seafoods varies greatly and depends on how it is processed. The fish processing industry generally calculates yield based on a gutted fish with head on, which typically averages about 40%. Demand for ready-to-eat and other value-added products that require skinless, boneless fillets, further increases the percentage of landed fish weight designated as waste. Also, when harvesting fish and crustaceans, many species are inadvertently caught that are not processed for human consumption. This catch also represents “waste” and its utilization is often regulated. The increasing demand for seafood, coupled with decreasing natural supplies, increasing demand for fish meal and oil, and the understanding that biological waste must be properly treated to avoid environmental degradation all support the utilization of fish byproducts. In fact, most byproducts are no longer regarded as waste but are considered raw material for further processing. Sorting and handling of byproducts can begin on board the fishing vessel for some species and often includes removal of heads and viscera, for others whole fish are delivered to shore side plants or mother ships where the byproducts are handled as the fish are processed. The byproducts available for further processing vary depending upon the primary process. For example, byproducts from gutting, freezing fillets, salting, and canning all have different qualities and hence different potentials. The composition of different byproducts such as heads, frames, viscera and skin differ greatly in their proximate composition and also the composition of the same byproduct such as heads have been shown to differ between species.