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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Parlier, California » San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center » Commodity Protection and Quality Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #246667

Title: Impact of High Temperature Forced Air Heating of Navel Oranges on Quality Attributes, Sensory Parameters, and Flavor Volatiles

item Obenland, David - Dave
item COLLIN, SUE - Kearney Agricultural Center
item SIEVERT, JIM - Kearney Agricultural Center
item ARPAIA, MARY LU - Kearney Agricultural Center

Submitted to: HortScience
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/13/2012
Publication Date: 3/1/2012
Citation: Obenland, D.M., Collin, S., Sievert, J., Arpaia, M. 2012. Impact of High Temperature Forced Air Heating of Navel Oranges on Quality Attributes, Sensory Parameters, and Flavor Volatiles. HortScience. 47:386-390.

Interpretive Summary: Due to legislative pressures and increasing consumer demand for organic fruit, there is great need for a non-chemical means for quarantine insect disinfestation to enable overseas export of navel oranges. Navel oranges were treated with high temperature forced air (HTFA) as a potential disinfestation treatment and the fruit quality subsequently evaluated. It was found that HTFA caused a significant loss in flavor quality of the fruit that was possibly related to the increase in flavor volatiles that occurred as a result of treatment. The results indicated that HTFA treatment would have to be modified and made less injurious to fruit quality before it could become commercially acceptable. It is possible that flavor volatiles could be monitored to facilitate treatment development.

Technical Abstract: Navel oranges were subjected to HTFA treatment in order to evaluate the effect on both quality and sensory attributes of a treatment protocol designed to disinfest citrus of Anastrepha spp. fruit flies. The treatment consisted of heating the fruit to a core temperature of 44°C and then holding it there for 100 min., after which the fruit were placed into storage for 4 weeks. The fruit were removed from storage and evaluated for surface injury, soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity and then judged for sensory characteristics by a semi-expert panel. It was found that the HTFA treatment caused a significant loss in flavor quality that was most closely linked to a loss in the fresh flavor of the fruit. The HTFA-treated fruit were also determined by panelists be less sweet, even though the SSC/TA ratio was increased by treatment. Neither storage nor waxing after treatment appeared to alter the HTFA-effect, although waxing prior to treatment greatly enhanced the negative effect on flavor. Flavor began to be affected when the core temperature reached 44°C, well before the needed time to complete the disinfestation treatment. Large changes in esters, alcohols and ketones were observed to occur as a result of treatment that could be linked to the negative effects of HTFA on flavor.