|Cason Jr, John|
Submitted to: International Seminar on Poultry Production and Pathology Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/6/2008
Publication Date: 10/22/2008
Citation: Cason Jr, J.A. 2008. Critical points in control of salmonella and camplobacter from farm to plate. Proceedings of the 11th International Seminar on Poultry Production and Pathology Proceedings, Valdivia, Chilie, October 22-24, 2008. p.69-72. Interpretive Summary: none
Technical Abstract: The ultimate reason for controlling pathogenic bacteria in poultry is to reduce the risk of human illness associated with poultry products. Salmonella usually appears when broiler flocks are 2-3 weeks old, with intestinal incidence peaking at 3 or 4 weeks and declining thereafter even as environmental samples and the exterior of the birds become more contaminated. In contrast to the Salmonella pattern, Campylobacter usually appears when the flock is 3-4 weeks old, with all birds colonized and with higher numbers present compared to Salmonella. Biosecurity programs and vaccination have had some success against Salmonella, but limited success against Campylobacter. Incidence and numbers of both bacteria rise during transportation, but use of logistic slaughter, or the processing of positive flocks later in the work day after negative flocks have been processed, can reduce cross-contamination between flocks. Scalding reduces the number of Campylobacter found on carcasses because of the hot water, but Salmonella bacteria are more resistant and survive relatively easily. Evisceration generally has little effect on carcass bacteria if equipment is adjusted properly. The effect of carcass spraying and washing has shown mixed results in various studies. Antibacterial chemical treatments are encouraged in some countries and forbidden in others. In many countries, however, apparent improvements in poultry carcass microbiology have not been accompanied by reductions in human salmonellosis. Salmonella can survive and reproduce in many different foods and on kitchen equipment, so most cases of salmonellosis occur as a result of cross-contamination in the kitchen and inoculation of Salmonella into other foods where reproduction occurs during improper holding conditions. Training of consumers and food service employees can also have a significant effect on reducing foodborne illness.