Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Sequential Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania in 2006-2007 Associated with Multiple Lineages of the Virus)

Author
item Nderitu, Leonard
item Lee, John
item Omolo, Jared
item Omulo, Sylvia
item Oguinn, Monica
item Hightower, Allen
item Mosh, Fausta
item Mohamed, Mohamed
item Mohamed, Mohamed
item Munyua, Peninah
item Nganga, Zipporah
item Hiett, Kelli
item Seal, Bruce
item Feikin, Daniel
item Breiman, Robert
item Njenga, M

Submitted to: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/2/2010
Publication Date: 3/1/2011
Citation: Nderitu, L., Lee, J.S., Omolo, J., Omulo, S., Oguinn, M.L., Hightower, A., Mosh, F., Mohamed, M., Mohamed, M., Munyua, P., Nganga, Z., Hiett, K.L., Seal, B.S., Feikin, D.R., Breiman, R.F., Njenga, M.K. 2011. Sequential Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania in 2006-2007 Associated with Multiple Lineages of the Virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 203(5):655-665.

Interpretive Summary: Routine testing for Campylobacter spp. in the food chain is primarily directed toward detection of C. jejuni and C. coli, thus the presence of novel Campylobacter spp., and their relative contribution to human illness, is not well understood. A survey to determine the presence of Campylobacter spp. in free-ranging birds was conducted in the Southeastern United States. Fecal samples were collected from 176 birds and assayed for Campylobacter spp. using two different plating methods. No samples plated onto the selective media were positive for Campylobacter spp.-like organisms. Additionally, no samples from birds with primarily herbivorous or insect foraging diets were positive using the filtration onto non-selective media methodology. Thirteen samples from birds with omnivorous diets were positive for Campylobacter spp.-like organisms using the filtration onto non-selective media methodology. Individual colonies were characterized using biochemical reactions along with determining antimicrobial resistance. The isolates were genotyped using a variety of PCR assays and DNA sequence analyses. Isolates were identified as C. jejuni, C. coli and a variety of Helicobacter spp. Discrepancies were observed between biochemical identification and identification using the PCR assays and 16S rRNA DNA sequence analyses. Observed antimicrobial resistances revealed that only three of the recovered isolates demonstrated resistance to any of the 9 antimicrobials tested during this investigation.

Technical Abstract: Routine testing for Campylobacter spp. in the food chain is primarily directed toward detection of C. jejuni and C. coli, thus the presence of novel Campylobacter spp., and their relative contribution to human illness, is not well understood. A survey to determine the presence of Campylobacter spp. in free-ranging birds was conducted in the Southeastern United States. Fecal samples were collected from 176 birds and assayed for Campylobacter spp. using either direct plating onto Campy-Cefex agar or filtration onto BAB plates. No samples plated onto Campy-Cefex agar were positive for Campylobacter spp.-like organisms. Additionally, no samples from birds with primarily herbivorous or insect foraging diets were positive using the filtration/BAB methodology. Thirteen samples from birds with omnivorous diets, 1 starling (Sturnus vulgarious), 8 crows (Corvus spp.), 1 rock pigeon (Columba livia), and 2 gulls (Larus spp.), were positive for Campylobacter spp.-like organisms using the filtration/BAB methodology. Individual colonies were characterized phenotypically along with determining antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The isolates were genotyped using a multiplex PCR assay and a PCR targeted to the 16S rDNA sequence. Campylobacter spp. identified phenotypically included only C. jejuni and C. coli while several recovered colonies had rRNA DNA sequences consistent with Helicobacter spp. Discrepancies were observed between phenotypic identification and identification using the multiplex PCR or 16S rRNA DNA sequence analyses. Observed MICs revealed that only three of the recovered isolates demonstrated resistance to any of the 9 antimicrobials tested during this investigation.

Last Modified: 8/24/2016
Footer Content Back to Top of Page