Submitted to: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/21/2008
Publication Date: 11/15/2008
Citation: Rice, P.J., Horgan, B.P., Rittenhouse, J.L., Kramer, K.E. 2008. The Turf Umbrella Project: Golf Turf Chemical Runoff Losses from Four Regional Sites [abstract]. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. p. 83. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Pesticides have been detected in surface waters of urban areas raising questions concerning their source and potential environmental and health effects. An estimated 25% of pesticides used in the United States result from nonagricultural pest control. Use of pesticides on golf course turf, often at rates that exceed agricultural or home environments, has raised questions concerning the contribution of runoff from managed turf. Experiments were designed to measure the quantity of pesticides transported with runoff from turf plots maintained as a golf course fairway, and to evaluate the ability of management practices to reduce the transport of pesticides with runoff. Plots were managed with solid tine or hollow tine aerification, initiated 2 and 63 days prior to pesticide application and simulated precipitation. Runoff volumes and quantities of pesticides transported with runoff were reduced in fairway turf plots managed with hollow tines relative to solid tines. Trends in reduced runoff volume and pesticide loss remained despite the increased time duration between management practice and precipitation. The addition of vertical mowing to manage thatch was evaluated the following season. Infiltration measurements, quantification of runoff volumes and examination of hydrographs revealed the addition of vertical mowing to hollow tine aerification doubled precipitation infiltrations rates, reduced runoff volumes, and lessened loads of pesticides transported off-site with runoff water. Understanding pesticide transport with runoff and identifying strategies that reduce off-site transport of applied chemicals will increase their effectiveness at intended sites of application and will minimize undesirable impacts to surrounding areas.