Submitted to: The Sport Psychologist
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/1/2008
Publication Date: 7/1/2009
Citation: Hanrahan, S.J., Pedro, R., Cerin, E. 2009. Structured self-reflection as a tool to enhance perceived performance and maintain effort in adult recreational salsa dancers. The Sport Psychologist. 23:151-169. Interpretive Summary: Regularly engaging in recreational activities provides healthy benefits. Understanding the various personal motivational factors that influence continued participation is needed. Dancing is a health-enhancing recreational activity that is very popular. The type and level of motivation to dance may be affected by perceived performance and achievement goals. Our study was conducted to examine whether a structured self-reflection that encourages the consideration of specific factors of good and poor performance of particular dance elements enhances intrinsic motivation, task focus and dancing performance. Our results indicated that although achievement goals were not affected by the self-reflection process, structured self-reflection was perceived to be a positive tool and a potentially useful technique to enhance perceived performance and to maintain personal effort. This study suggests that structured self-reflection could be used to assist the maintenance of regular engagement in skill-based recreational activities such as dancing. This study may influence future interventions by utilizing 'structured self-reflections' as a motivational tool for continuation. This could be applied to interventions that target children or new mothers to promote a healthier, more physically active lifestyle.
Technical Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of structured self-reflection in community dance classes would influence achievement goal orientations, levels of intrinsic motivation, or perceived dance performance. The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) were modified slightly to reflect involvement in salsa dancing rather than sport and then were administered to 139 Latin dance students at the beginning and end of an 11-week term. The dance classes were divided into control and intervention groups, balanced in terms of sample size and level of instruction. The intervention group completed a salsa self-reflection form during or after class for 9 weeks. At the posttest all students rated their salsa performance and the intervention group evaluated the self-reflection process. Results indicate that although achievement goal orientations were not affected, structured self-reflection is perceived to be a positive tool and may be a useful technique to enhance perceived performance and maintain effort and perceived importance. The participants’ perceptions of the self-reflection process were positive, with no negative effects of engaging in the process reported.