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ARS Home » Plains Area » Manhattan, Kansas » Center for Grain and Animal Health Research » ABADRU » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #243443

Title: Development of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays Using Expressed Proteins of Rift Valley Fever Virus

item Mecham, James
item Miller, Myrna

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/1/2009
Publication Date: 7/11/2009
Citation: Mecham, J.O., Miller, M.M. 2009. Development of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays Using Expressed Proteins of Rift Valley Fever Virus. Meeting Abstract. Pg 294:P19-5

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a member of the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae that can cause severe disease in both humans and animals. The disease is enzootic in sub-Saharan Africa and RVFV epidemics/epizootics occur periodically, primarily in eastern and southern Africa. Since the virus is spread by both the oral/aerosol route and by biting insects (mosquitoes), it has the potential to spread rapidly, if introduced into a new ecosystem. This is illustrated by recent disease outbreaks in the Arabian Peninsula. Introduction of RVFV into the U.S., either intentionally or unintentionally, is an agricultural and public health concern. Because of potential contamination with live virus, currently available reagents and protocols for diagnosis of RVFV in the U.S. are limited to the Centers for Disease Control, the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center. The introduction of RVFV could soon overwhelm U.S. diagnostic capacity because of the limited supply of reagents and certified laboratories. To this end, non-infectious RFVF proteins were expressed and incorporated into enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests for detection of antibody to RFVF. Both binding (b-ELISA) and competitive (c-ELISA) tests were developed. These assays detected specific antibody in sheep and rodents that had been infected with either virulent RFVF or an attenuated vaccine strain of RVFV. These non-infectious reagents and assays could be distributed to regional and state laboratories to increase diagnostic surge capacity in the event of an introduction of RVFV into the U.S.