Location: Children's Nutrition Research CenterTitle: Snacking is associated with improved healthy eating index (HEI-2005 scores in adolescents aged 12-18 years: NHANES, 1999-2004) Author
Submitted to: Journal of Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Publication Type: Abstract only
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/1/2008
Publication Date: 4/1/2009
Citation: Keast, D.R., O'Neil, C.E., Nicklas, T.A. 2009. Snacking is associated with improved healthy eating index (HEI-2005) scores in adolescents aged 12-18 years: NHANES, 1999-2004 [abstract]. Journal of Federation of American Societies for Experimental Bilogy 23:912.12. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the association of snacking with diet quality in adolescents aged 12-18 years (n = 5,811). Snacks/drinks were combined when eating occasions were named in the 24-h recall, but analysis separated snacks from snacks/drinks that were only drinks. Adolescents were classified by frequency of snack consumption (0, 1, 2, 3, 4+ snacks per day), and by % of daily energy intake obtained from snacks (0, <10, 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40% or more). Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2005) with component scores determined by dietary intakes of macronutrients, sodium, and MyPyramid food groups per 1,000 calories. Energy intake increased, but energy-adjusted intakes of total fat did not differ, carbohydrate was positively associated, and sodium was inversely associated with snacking frequency and percentage of energy from snacks. HEI-2005 components improved with snacking included total and whole fruit, total and whole grain, healthy oils, and sodium; the solid fat, alcohol, added sugars score did not differ, but the meat & beans score was decreased with snacking frequency and with intake of calories from snacks. Snackers eating 2+ snacks per day, and snackers having <40% energy from snacks had higher total HEI-2005 scores than non-snackers. Snacking in moderation is associated with improved diet quality among adolescents in the U.S.