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Title: Avian paramyxoviruses in shorebirds and gulls

item COFFEE, LAURA - University Of Georgia
item HANSON, BRITTA - University Of Georgia
item LUTTRELL, M. PAGE - University Of Georgia
item Swayne, David
item SENNE, DENNIS - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
item GOEKJIAN, VIRGINIA - University Of Georgia
item NILES, LAWRENCE - New Jersey Division Of Fish & Wildlife
item STALLKNECHT, DAVID - University Of Georgia

Submitted to: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/1/2010
Publication Date: 6/1/2010
Citation: Coffee, L.L., Hanson, B.A., Luttrell, M., Swayne, D.E., Senne, D.A., Goekjian, V.H., Niles, L.J., Stallknecht, D.E. 2010. Avian paramyxoviruses in shorebirds and gulls. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 46(2):481-487.

Interpretive Summary: Free flying waterfowl, mostly ducks and geese, have been found to be infected with avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) of any of the nine serotypes but data on infections of shorebirds is lacking. In this study, 9,128 shorebirds and gulls (33 species, 5 families) in 10 states along the Atlantic flyway and three countries in the Caribbean and South America were tested and 58 APMV were isolated. Most isolates came from Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres) and only two serotypes were found, APMV-1 and APMV-2. This data indicates that APMV may be maintained in limited number of shorebirds and future surveillance should be targeted to specific species.

Technical Abstract: Avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) consist of nine serotypes including APMV-1, or Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Although free-flying ducks and geese have been extensively monitored for APMV, limited information is available for species in the order Charadriiformes. From 2000 to 2005 we tested cloacal swabs from 9,128 shorebirds and gulls (33 species, 5 families) captured in 10 states along the Atlantic flyway and three countries in the Caribbean and South America; APMV was isolated from 58 (0.6%) of these samples by inoculation of embryonating chicken eggs. All 58 isolates came from birds at Delaware Bay (Delaware and New Jersey) and 45 (78%) were from Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres). The APMV-1 infection rate was approximately five times higher among Ruddy Turnstones compared with other species. This relationship varied by year, and the prevalence peaked in 2003 when Ruddy Turnstones on the south shore of the Delaware Bay were disproportionately affected. APMV-2 was isolated from two of 394 (0.5%) Ruddy Turnstones at Delaware Bay in 2001 and 13 of 735 (1.8%) Ruddy Turnstones during 2002. Similar to APMV-1 data, APMV-2 infection rates were higher among Ruddy Turnstones sampled on the south shore of Delaware Bay compared to north shore populations. This spatial variation may be related to local movements of Ruddy Turnstones within this ecosystem. The higher prevalence of APMV in Ruddy Turnstones mirrors results observed for avian influenza viruses in shorebirds and may suggest similar modes of transmission.