Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


Location: Dairy Forage Research

Title: A Survey of Golf Courses as a Source of Invasive C3 Grasses

item Stier, John
item Garrison, Mark
item Luschei, Ed
item Casler, Michael

Submitted to: ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/13/2009
Publication Date: 11/1/2009
Citation: Stier, J., Garrison, M., Luschei, E., Casler, M.D. 2009. A Survey of Golf Courses as a Source of Invasive C3 Grasses [abstract]. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting Abstracts. Paper No. 362-14.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.; CBG), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.; KBG), and fine fescue species (Festuca spp.; FF) are commonly used as turf on golf courses. All have been identified as invasive species by governmental or non-governmental groups. We hypothesized that abundance of these grasses in naturalized areas would decline with distance from the golf course. We surveyed the naturalized areas surrounding 12 Wisconsin golf courses to determine the amount of turfgrass present. Golf courses were classified by age groups (< 20, 25-50, and > 75 years), historical vegetation (hardwood or mixed forest, pine barrens, prairie), and current vegetation. Transects, aligned perpendicularly to golf course fairways, were placed 150 m apart. Sampling frames were placed at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, and 96 m along both sides of each transect. A Daubenmire cover class rating was assigned for each turfgrass species, dicots, woody plants, or other cover (0=none, 1=>0-5%, 2=5-25%, 3=25-50%, 4=50-75%, 5=>75%). KBG was found in 13% of 2433 quadrats, FF in 9%, and CBG in 1%. Daubenmire scores showed an inverse relationship with log-linear distance from maintained turf at most golf courses for KBG and FF. Scores never achieved a 2 except for FF at one golf course in a highly disturbed setting. Age, historical, and current vegetation classes never accounted for more than 20% of treatment variability, indicating much of the turfgrass presence was due to other factors. Turfgrasses were sometimes in disturbed sites (ant mounds, trails). KBG and FF occurred most often in open, not wooded, areas. These grasses existed only as a minor part of the ecosystems evaluated.

Last Modified: 10/20/2017
Footer Content Back to Top of Page