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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


Location: Nutrient Data Laboratory

Title: Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Sorghum, Millet, and Whole Wheat Flour

item Gebhardt, Susan
item Thomas, Robin

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/15/2009
Publication Date: 9/16/2009
Citation: Gebhardt, S.E., Thomas, R.G. 2009. Nutrient composition of retail samples of sorghum, millet, and whole wheat flour. American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) International Annual Meeting, September 13-16, 2009, Baltimore, Maryland.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: More than 2 million people in the United States have celiac disease, or about 1 in 133 individuals. People who have this disease cannot tolerate gluten, a protein in wheat, rye, and barley. The only treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet. Nutrient profiles were lacking in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) for sorghum and millet flour, two cereals which can be used in gluten free diets. Three different brands of each type of flour were purchased from retail suppliers. Whole wheat flour samples were also obtained to update the existing nutrient profile. Samples were prepared at the Food Analysis Laboratory Control Center at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and shipped by overnight delivery to analytical laboratories with appropriate analytical quality control and reference materials. These laboratories had previously been qualified to perform analyses of nutrients through the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program. Samples were analyzed for proximate components, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, and amino acids. Whole wheat flour is highest in protein content at 13.7 % versus 10.8 % for millet, and 7.7 % for sorghum flour. Millet is the highest in total fat content, 4.9 %, versus sorghum at 3.5 % and wheat at 1.9 %. Wheat flour is significantly higher (p<.05) in iron, phosphorus, potassium, copper, and manganese compared to sorghum flour, and slightly higher (p<.01) in phosphorus, potassium, and manganese compared to millet flour. For health professionals who advise clients on food choices as well as for people who are trying to follow a gluten-free diet, having data for millet and sorghum flours in the SR provides an easily accessible and reliable source of nutrient information (

Last Modified: 10/19/2017
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