|Zhu, Junwei - Jerry|
|Park, Kye Chung|
Submitted to: Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/26/2009
Publication Date: 10/19/2009
Publication URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10113/45307
Citation: Zhu, J.J., Polavarapu, S., Park, K., Garvey, C., Mahr, D.L., Nojima, S., Roelofs, W., Baker, T.C. 2009. Reidentification of pheromone composition of Sparganothis sulfureana (Clemens) and evidence of geographic variation in male responses from two US states. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 12:247-252. Interpretive Summary: The cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is a native North American crop that is commercially grown on over thousands of hectares in the northeast, north central and northwest regions of the United States. Sparganothis fruitworm (Sparganothis sulfureana) is one of the most important pests of cranberries in the US. Control of S. sulfureana in cranberry marshes relies heavily on the application of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. However, with increasing concern about potential environmental risks such as surface water pollution, and the elimination of organophosphate insecticides. Pheromone mating disruption would be one of these alternatives, but the full blend of pheromone components of this pest species has to be completed, since formulated natural blend of sex pheromone is argued to provide most robust mating disruption.
Technical Abstract: Gas chromatographic – electroantennagraphic analyses of pheromone gland extracts of calling female Sparganothis sulfureana revealed at least 6 compounds that consistently elicited electroantennographic responses from male antennae. In addition to the major pheromone compound, (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, which was previously reported, the other compounds were found to be (E)-9-dodecenyl acetate, Z9-dodecenyl acetate, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, and (E)-11-tetradecenol. Tetradecanyl acetate, hexadecanyl acetate and hexadecenyl acetates were also present in the extracts, but elicited no EAG activity from male antennae. Wind-tunnel tests demonstrated that males from New Jersey responded equally well to a blend containing six components, compared to the pheromone-gland extracts of calling females. Different male-response profiles from field trapping tests conducted were observed in the states of Wisconsin and New Jersey, respectively. Significantly higher numbers of male S. sulfureana in New Jersey were caught in traps baited with the binary blend of (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (30 'g) with 1% of (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, but males from Wisconsin responded equally well to traps containing blends of (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate with 0-10% of (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate. The addition of more than 10% of (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate to the primary pheromone compound reduced male captures significantly in both states. Male catches were doubled while adding (E)-9-dodecenyl acetate and E11-tetradecenyl alcohol to the most attractive binary blend in both states. The trapping test with caged live virgin female moths showed that males from Wisconsin preferred females from the local population to those from New Jersey. The differences in male responses observed may indicate the possible existence of pheromone polymorphism in this species.