Location: Sugarcane Field StationTitle: Sugarcane Genotype Selection for Sand Soils in Florida Author
|Del Blanco, Isabel|
Submitted to: American Society of Sugar Cane Technologists
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/22/2009
Publication Date: 7/1/2009
Citation: Glaz, B.S., Irey, M., Hu, C., El-Hout, N., Langdale, J., Del Blanco, I.A. 2009. Sugarcane Genotype Selection for Sand Soils in Florida. American Society of Sugar Cane Technologists. Volume 29:89 Interpretive Summary: Research has shown that for a 33-year period, the cooperative sugarcane breeding program located at Canal Point, FL has been responsible for substantial yield gains for Florida growers with organic (muck) soils. However, during the same period, this breeding program was not responsible for yield improvement for sand soils. Thirty-one sugarcane genotypes were planted on a sand soil in 2007. These genotypes were grown with and without added mill mud. A by-product of the sugarcane milling process, mill mud is an organic waste produced from the clarification of sugarcane juice, and it is rich in N, P, K, Ca, and Mg. Also, in Florida, mill mud is largely muck soil that goes through the mill with the sugarcane. Thus, genotype performance was compared on sand and sand with mill mud with the hope that the sand with mill mud would be similar to Florida’s muck soils. Relative yields of 25 of the genotypes were similar on both soil treatments. However, six genotypes favored one soil treatment over the other. Three genotypes, CL 90-4725, CP 00-1446, and CP 01-1372 would not have been selected based on their performance on the sand soil, but were outstanding with the added mill mud. This was a surprising result because all three of these genotypes were expected to yield well on sand soils. One new genotype, CPCL 01-0877, also expected to yield well on sand soils, had high yields on the sand, but not on the mill mud. CP 01-2390 had high yields on the mill mud and extremely high yields on sand; and CP 78-1628 had mediocre yields on sand and poor yields on mill mud. The early stages of the Canal Point program are conducted entirely on muck soils; and one theory is that selection for sand soils will be improved by including early stages on sand soils. However, the results of this study indicated that improving genotype selection for sand soils will be more complex than placing more early-stage selection emphasis on sand soils.
Technical Abstract: Selection of high yielding sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) genotypes for organic (muck) soils in Florida has been more successful than for sand soils. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of 31 sugarcane genotypes on sand soils with and without mill mud added at the rate of 1510 cubic meters per ha. Mill mud, a by-product organic waste produced from the clarification of sugarcane juice, is rich in N, P, K, Ca, and Mg. Commercial recoverable sucrose (CRS) (g per kg), Mg cane per ha (cane yield), and Mg of sucrose per ha (sucrose yield) were determined about 1 year after planting. Mean CRS, cane, and sucrose yields with and without mill mud were 116 vs. 136 g per kg, 216 vs. 103 Mg per ha, and 25 vs. 14 Mg per ha, respectively. Soil treatment (sand or mill mud) significantly (P = 0.10) influenced the cane and sucrose yields of six genotypes. CL 90-4725, CP 00-1446, and CP 01-1372 had high yields with mill mud, but mediocre yields on sand. CP 01-2390 had moderately high yields with mill mud, but was one of the two highest yielding genotypes on sand. CP 78-1628, the most widely grown sugarcane cultivar on sand in Florida, had mediocre yields on sand and poor yields on mill mud. Its yields on both treatments were probably substantially reduced by heavy brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala) infestation. CPCL 01-0877 had high yields on sand and low yields with mill mud. Adding mill mud was necessary to confirm previous research that CL 90-4725, CP 00-1446, and CP 01-1372 are high yielding on sand soils. Conversely, mill mud detracted in the confirmation that CPCL 01-0877 is high yielding on sand soils.