Submitted to: Obesity
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/1/2007
Publication Date: 9/1/2007
Citation: Wilson, T., Adolph, A., Butte, N. 2007. Nutrient adequacy and diet quality in low-income Hispanic children – The VIVA LA FAMILIA Study [abstract]. Obesity. 15:355-P(Suppl). Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: The role of nutrient adequacy and diet quality in the etiology of childhood obesity is poorly understood. Epidemiological studies have suggested that low-cost, energy dense diets high in grains, added sugars, and fat contribute to the development of obesity, especially in low-income groups. The specific aims of these analyses were to assess nutrient adequacy and diet quality in 993 low-income Hispanic children participating in the VIVA LA FAMILIA study, and to test for diet differences between non-overweight and overweight siblings. Multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls were recorded on two random occasions using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) software (Minneapolis, MN). Z-scores were computed using estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI) to assess nutrient adequacy. Mean usual nutrient intakes were adequate (70% probability), except for vitamin E, calcium, and potassium. Fiber intake exceeded the AI in only 7% of children. Sodium intake exceeded the AI and UL in 95% and 66% of children, respectively. Proportion of children exceeding the upper acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR) was 5, 8 and 43% for carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively. Proportion of children exceeding the maximal intake level for added sugars was 24%. Energy density calculated without caloric beverages was relatively low, but correlated positively with z-scores for vitamin E, and negatively with vitamin C, B6, magnesium, copper, and calcium. Percent of energy consumed from food groups was as follows: grains (28%), meat (18%), dairy (17%), beverages (11%), fats (9%), sweets (4%), fruit (6%), and vegetables (6%). Nutrient adequacy and diet quality did not differ between non-overweight and overweight siblings, except for cholesterol and %E from dairy and meat, which were higher, and % E from fruit and vegetables which was lower in overweight children. Diets of low-income Hispanic children were sufficient in most essential nutrients, but suboptimal for promotion of long-term health.