Submitted to: Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/8/2011
Publication Date: 12/2/2011
Publication URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.11.036
Citation: Ishida, B.K., Chapman, M.H. 2011. Effects of a hydrodynamic process on extraction of carotenoids from tomato. Food Chemistry. 132:1156-1160. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.11.036.
Interpretive Summary: We evaluated a sonoporation method for its ability to release nutrients from fruits and vegetables. Tomato, a major source of lycopene, and Citrus were tested. Both provide many health benefits to consumers. Samples before and after treatment were compared for lycopene or Citrus limonoids. Extractable Citrus limonoids did not change after sonoporation, but much more lycopene was released. Almost all lycopene in nature is in the trans form. Some trans lycopene changes to cis-lycopene during cooking and digestion so that more cis lycopene is in blood and tissues. The intestine absorbs cis lycopene more easily than trans lycopene. Sonoporation increased extractable cis-lycopene to as much as 43% of the total, showing that this method could contribute significantly to the health benefits of tomato products.
Technical Abstract: We evaluated a proprietary sonoporation method that was introduced with the hope of increasing accessibility of phytonutrients in fruits and vegetables. Two important commodities were selected: tomato, a major source of carotenoids, notably lycopene, in the diet of the Western world; and Citrus, one of the most popular fruits and a major component of the diet throughout the world. Both provide many health benefits to consumers. Samples before and after sonoporation were compared for lycopene or Citrus limonoid contents. Changes in extractable limonin glucoside concentrations were negligible after sonoporation, but lycopene increased significantly. In nature, lycopene exists almost exclusively as the all-trans isomer. Cis-lycopene isomers form during cooking and digestion, resulting in higher concentrations in plasma and tissues than ingested. Cis-lycopene is more bioavailable than all-trans lycopene. Sonoporation increased extracted cis lycopene to as much as 43% of the total, indicating isomerization. This method could therefore contribute significantly to the delivery of health benefits of tomato products.