Submitted to: Soil Science Society of America Journal
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/15/2005
Publication Date: 7/20/2006
Publication URL: doi:102136/sssaj2001.0063
Citation: Williams, C.F., Letey, J., Farmer, W.F. 2006. ESTIMATING THE POTENTIAL FOR FACILITATED TRANSPORT OF NAPROPAMIDE BY DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER. Soil Science Society of America Journal. doi:102136/sssaj2001.0063, pp. 24-30. Interpretive Summary: Generally, soil organic matter governs the fate and transport of organic pesticides. Current theory predicts that increasing soil organic matter retards the transport of organic pesticides. However, it has been shown that soil derived dissolved organic matter can lead to enhanced movement of a small fraction of the herbicide napropamide. The current study investigates a qualitative predictor for dissolved organic matter facilitated transport of napropamide. Using two different techniques, to measure sorption characteristics of napropamide to soil, it was found that a simple ratio of these two methods could determine the potential for enhanced transport. This technique can be used to determine the potential for enhanced transport. When options for pest control exist, this technique can be used to determine which control option will better protect ground water from potential contamination. Growers can use this information to determine the best time to apply herbicide to prevent loss due to leaching.
Technical Abstract: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been found to significantly affect the soil sorption/desorption of napropamide [2-(a-naphthoxy-N, N-diethylpropionamide] and to enhance its transport through soil columns. A method to qualitatively predict if DOM will enhance the transport of napropamide based on easily determined sorptive characteristics is investigated. Batch sorption experiments were specifically designed to simulate field application of napropamide. The formation of a napropamide– DOM complex was enhanced by pretreating soils with pesticide and allowing the carrier solvent to evaporate prior to preparing a water extract of the soil (K1). A second adsorption coefficient was measured by equilibrating K1 with untreated soil (K2). Column transport studies using the same soils as the batch equilibrium studies were performed. After allowing napropamide to dry, columns were leached. Initial leachate from all soils contained napropamide indicating that the collected napropamide had been transported through the column without adsorption. However, the amount leached was dependant on soil type and in general soils with higher organic matter content had higher concentrations of napropamide in the initial 30 mL of leachate when compared with lower organic matter (OM) soils. The ratio of the K1 and K2 solutions from the batch equilibrium studies were found to be positively correlated with the mass of napropamide in the initial leachate. Therefore the ratio of K1 to K2 provided a better qualitative predictor of the potential for facilitated transport of napropmamide than soil OM content.