Submitted to: Wheat: Science and Trade
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/22/2009
Publication Date: 5/1/2009
Citation: Ross, A.S., Bettge, A.D. 2009. Chaper 20: Passing the Test on Wheat End-Use Quality. Pages 455-494. Wheat: Science and Trade. Ed: B.F. Carver. Interpretive Summary: This chapter discusses the physical, chemical, biochemical, and genetic aspects of wheat as they impact the milling and baking quatliy of wheat and flour. Testing methods for each of the various aspects of wheat quality are discussed. Techniques and approaches to a testing program are discussed as they pertain to each of the attributes of wheat or flour quality, depending on where in the breeding, testing, or utilization process interest or emphasis is being placed. This is a technical chapter that acts as a reference and starting point for those interested in testing for wheat quality in end-uses and managing wheat in both breeding and marketing channels.
Technical Abstract: Optimum results for wheat flour products depend on a specific array of functional properties. The factors that impact suitability for a specific end-use include kernel texture, starch properties, and gluten composition. Each of the attributes that contribute to product quality vary qualitatively or quantitatively. To optimally match a wheat cultivar to its end-use, knowlege of the grain's key components and milling potential are needed. Some of the tools for these assessments are: moisture and protein analysis, kernel texture, grain soundness, and ash content. Knowing the basic composition is a start to defining wheat quality, other, additional tools that directly measure or predict functional attributes (dough or flour) or components tereof (startch, gluten, arabinoxylans) are also discussed. This includes starch and flour paste properties, solvent retention capacity, dough testing and prediction of dough properties. The final arbiter of quality is the end product however. This chapter emphasizes general and all-encompassing principals and techniques for measuring quality in end-uses (cookies, cakes, noodles, various styles of bread). The newest technologies are highlights, along with their potential to improve the process of getting the right wheat to the right customer, as well as improving the scientific understanding of wheat-based foods and their process intermeiates.