|Del Blanco, Isabel|
Submitted to: Government Publication/Report
Publication Type: Government Publication
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/1/2009
Publication Date: 6/1/2009
Citation: Glaz, B.S., Edme, S.J., Comstock, J.C., Davidson, W.R., Glynn, N.C., Gilbert, R.A., Sood, S.G., Del Blanco, I.A. Evaluation of New Canal Point Clones: 2007-2008 Harvest Season. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, ARS-170, 36 pp. 2009.
Interpretive Summary: Farmers in Florida need a constant influx of new sugarcane varieties. During their evaluation, sugarcane varieties are referred to as clones because after a seed is obtained from a cross, the resulting plant (variety) is then vegetatively (clonally) propagated by planting buds on stalk sections. Hence the name of this report refers to sugarcane clones rather than varieties. Due to changes in pathogens, varieties that were once resistant and productive can quickly become susceptible and not economical. Changes in farming practices also may lead to changes in variety preferences. For example, in Florida, some varieties lost their profitability when the harvesting system was changed from manual to mechanical. This is a report of the progress on sugarcane varieties in an advanced selection stage of the Canal Point cooperative sugarcane variety development program. Members of this program include the USDA-Agricultural Research Service, the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. In addition to disease resistance, this program also seeks to develop sugarcane varieties that are tolerant to freezes and high water tables. Tolerance to high water tables helps growers reduce phosphorus export to the natural Everglades by enabling them to reduce pumping excess water out of fields after heavy rains. This report of results from the 2007-2008 harvest season identified one promising CP variety and one promising CPCL variety in their first year of expanded testing, and two promising CPCL varieties in their second year of testing in this program. In addition, based on data from three years of testing, CP 01-1372 and CPCL 97-2730 were released for commercial production in Florida. The CP in CP 01-1372 indicates that this variety originated from a cross made at Canal Point and all subsequent selection was in the Canal Point program. The CL in CPCL 97-2730 indicates that this variety was first selected from a cross made at Clewiston, FL in a private breeding program of the United States Sugar Corp. After discontinuing its breeding program, the United States Sugar Corp. donated CL 97-2730 to USDA-ARS and the clone then underwent further testing in the Canal Point program. Its name was changed to CPCL 97-2730 to acknowledge the contribution of the Canal Point program in developing this variety. With about 405,000 acres of sugarcane, Florida, the leading sugar producing state in the U.S., is responsible for about 25% of domestic sugar produced in the U.S. About 40,000 jobs and several rural economies are dependent on the constant influx of new sugarcane varieties from Canal Point.
Technical Abstract: Twenty-eight replicated experiments were conducted on nine farms (representing four muck and two sand soils) to evaluate 44 new Canal Point (CP) and 11 new Canal Point and Clewiston (CPCL) clones of sugarcane from the CP 03, CP 02, CP 01, CP 00, CPCL 01, CPCL 00, and CPCL 99 series. Experiments compared the cane and sugar yields of the new clones, complex hybrids of Saccharum spp., primarily with yields of CP 89-2143, and to a lesser extent with CP 72-2086 and CP 78-1628. All three were major sugarcane cultivars in Florida. Each clone was rated for its tolerance to diseases and cold temperatures. Based on results of these and previous years’ tests, two new clones—CP 01-1372 and CPCL 97-2730 were released for commercial production in Florida. The audience for this publication includes growers, geneticists and other researchers, extension agents, and individuals who are interested in sugarcane cultivar development.