Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/2/2009
Publication Date: 10/24/2009
Citation: Park, J.B. 2009. Isolation and characterization of N-feruloyltyramine as the P-selectin expression suppressor from garlic (Allium sativum). Journal of Agricultural Food & Chemistry. 57(19):8868-8872. Interpretive Summary: Garlic (Allium sativum) is believed to have positive health effects on cardiovascular disease and should be a rich source of active compounds that enhance health. We isolated fractions from a garlic extract against cardiovascular disease-related processes as a screening method to identify active compounds. The suppression of P-selectin on the surface of activated blood platelets is thought to reduce plaque formation in blood vessels and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. We evaluated fractions separated from garlic extract to suppress P-selectin activation. The fraction with highest P-selectin expression-suppressing activity was purified and confirmed as alfrutamide. Alfrutamide (N-feruloyltyramine) is a caffedymine-type phenylpropenoic acid amide found in many plants. Alfrutamide in garlic is likely to suppress P-selectin expression via inhibiting COX-I enzyme in platelets. The impact of this study is in the new information to researchers in nutrition, molecular biology, and medicinal chemistry about an enriched product from garlic that can regulate platelet activity in the body.
Technical Abstract: Because garlic (Allium sativum) is believed to have positive health effects on cardiovascular disease, the screening of isolated fractions from a garlic extract against cardiovascular disease related-processes should help identify active compounds. Both P-selectin expression suppressing activity against platelets and COX enzymes (I and II) that regulate suppression of P-selectin expression on platelets were evaluated as biomarkers. In this paper, garlic cloves were extracted sequentially with methanol and hexane, and fractionated using silica-gel chromatography. The fraction with highest P-selectin expression suppressing activity was further purified using HPLC, and the compounds in the fraction were analyzed using MS, MS/MS, and NMR spectroscopic methods. Using the NMR spectroscopic technique, the compound with highest suppressing activity was confirmed as alfrutamide. Alfrutamide (N-feruloyltyramine) is a caffedymine-type phenylpropenoic acid amide found in many plants. At the concentration of 0.05 'M, alfrutamide from garlic extract was able to suppress P-selectin expression on platelets by 31 % (P < 0.016), and also inhibit COX-I and COX-II enzymes by 43 % (P < 0.012) and 33 % (P < 0.014), respectively. Alfrutamide in garlic is likely to suppress P-selectin expression via inhibiting COX-I enzyme in platelets.