Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/8/2010
Publication Date: 3/9/2010
Publication URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10113/45596
Citation: Knight, A.L. 2010. Targeting Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Adults with Low Volume Applications of Insecticides Alone and in Combination with Sex Pheromone. Journal of Economic Entomology 2010; 66:709-717. Interpretive Summary: Codling moth is the key pest of apples and pears and world-wide markets require that it is managed at very low levels. Adoption of sex pheromones as part of an integrated program for this pest has increased dramatically but further improvements are needed to reduce the disruptive effects of supplemental insecticide sprays that are often applied. ARS researchers at the USDA, ARS, Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory, Wapato, WA developed the use of low volume sprays of pheromone and insecticides applied with an ATV. They found that reduced rates of insecticides per acre can effectively manage codling moth using this approach. Significantly, low volume spray programs did not disrupt pest mites. These findings provide the means for growers to manage codling moth with less insecticides.
Technical Abstract: Studies examined the effectiveness of adding insecticides to low volume sprays of a microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone to manage codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L). The activities of fifteen insecticides against the adult stage were first evaluated with a plastic cup assay. In general, moth longevity, mating success, and fecundity of mated females declined as a function of increasing insecticide rate. In particular, the neonicotinyls, organophosphates, and synthetic pyrethroids significantly reduced fecundity at concentrations nearly 100-fold lower than their labeled field rate. Field studies demonstrated that six applications of esfenvalerate were effective in managing codling moth and the addition of the MEC pheromone formulation did not further improve control. Seasonal programs (five spray applications) using reduced rates of esfenvalerate, phosmet, and acetamiprid all significantly reduced levels of fruit injury compared with the untreated control. Sprays of esfenvalerate and acetamiprid mixed with the MEC pheromone formulation significantly reduced fruit injury compared with the MEC-only treatment. Significant increases in pest mite and decreases in predator mite densities occurred in plots treated with esfenvalerate. Reduced rates of phosmet and acetamiprid did not similarly disrupt mites. Low volume sprays of acetamiprid were also effective in reducing populations of white apple leafhopper.