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Title: Winter Cover Residue Amount Affects Early Season Weed Biomass in a Conservation Tillage Corn and Cotton Rotation

item Price, Andrew
item Arriaga, Francisco
item Balkcom, Kipling
item Raper, Randy

Submitted to: Weed Science Society of America Meeting Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/2/2009
Publication Date: 2/2/2009
Citation: Saini, M., Price, A.J., Van Santen, E., Arriaga, F.J., Balkcom, K.S., Raper, R.L. 2009. Winter Cover Residue Amount Affects Early Season Weed Biomass in a Conservation Tillage Corn and Cotton Rotation [abstract]. Weed Science Society of America Meeting Abstracts.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Use of the winter cover crops is an integral component of the conservation systems in corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Field experiments were conducted from autumn of 2003 at the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station’s E.V. Smith Research Center at Shorter, Al and Tennessee Valley Research and Extension Centers at Belle Mina, AL through cash crop harvest in 2006. Experiment was also conducted at the University of Florida’s West Florida Education and Research Center at Jay, FL from autumn of 2004 to cash crop harvest in 2006. The treatments were five cover crop seeding dates each autumn and four cover crop termination dates each spring. The seeding dates were based on the 30 year average date of the first 0 C temperature at each location. The five seeding dates were: on the first average 0 C temperature date, two and four weeks prior and two and four weeks after the average 0 C temperature date. Termination dates were four, three, two, and one week prior to the average date for the establishment of the cash crop, which is based the long-term average soil temperature. Rotation for winter cover crops included clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) preceding corn and cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) preceding cotton. Results showed biomass production by winter covers was impacted with even a week’s delay in winter cover crop seeding and corresponding reduction in summer annual weed suppression. In general, winter cover crop biomass increased with the earlier planting and later termination and weed biomass decreased with increasing biomass. Observations indicate that high cover biomass should decrease early season weed interference and facilitate flexibility of POST application timing.