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Title: Enviromental Effects on Oleic Acid in Soybean Seed Oil of Plant Introductions with Elevated Oleic Concentration

item Smith, James - Rusty

Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/19/2009
Publication Date: 9/1/2009
Citation: Lee, J., Woolard, M., Sleper, D.A., Smith, J.R., Pantalone, V.R., Nyinyi, C.N., Cardinal, A., Shannon, G.J. 2009. Enviromental Effects on Oleic Acid in Soybean Seed Oil of Plant Introductions with Elevated Oleic Concentration. Crop Science. 49:1762-1768.

Interpretive Summary: Soybean oil is the second-most consumed vegetable oil in the world. It is hydrogenated to improve its shelf life and taste, but hydrogenation leads to the formation of trans-fats, which are associated with health problems in humans. Soybean oil with higher levels of oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, would be more healthy, have a longer shelf-life, and be more widely used. Seed oil of most commercially grown soybean varieties averages about 23% oleic acid. Some varieties average over 50% oleic acid, depending on temperature; hot weather favors higher oleic acid levels. Hence, oleic acid levels in high-oleic acid varieties are unpredictable because of weather factors during seed production. Eighteen soybean varieties were tested in 16 environments to determine which ones regularly produced the highest levels of oleic acid. The 18 varieties varied in their oleic acid levels and stability. Varieties that most reliably produced the highest levels of oleic acid were recommended for use by plant breeders for developing improved varieties with reliably high levels of oleic acid. These new high-oleic varieties would benefit the vegetable oil industry and consumers because they would not need as much hydrogenation to have a long shelf-life, would be more healthy, and would be more utilized.

Technical Abstract: Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil with oleic acid content >500 g per kg is desirable for a broader role in food and industrial uses. Seed oil in commercially grown soybean genotypes averages about 230 g per kg oleic acid (18:1). Some maturity group (MG) II to V plant introductions (PIs) have elevated oleic concentrations of 300 to 500 g per kg. Temperature of the growing environment during the reproductive growth stage affects oleic concentration in soybean oil. The objective of this study was to evaluate stability of oleic acid content among 15 PIs with elevated 18:1 and three checks grown in 16 environments. Oleic acid concentration of the high 18:1 checks N98-4445A and M23 ranged from 383 to 694 g per kg and 428 to 572 g per kg with averages of 575 g per kg and 508 g per kg, respectively. PIs with the highest 18:1 were MG II-III with most lines averaging >400 g per kg oleic concentration over 16 environments. Generally, PIs in MG II-III were less stable across environments than those in MG V. However, MG III PI 379559D ranged from 381 to 513 g per kg with an average of 439 g per kg oleic acid concentration and was the most stable in oleic acid content of the 15 PIs studied. PI379559D was more stable than N98-4445A or M23. PI417360 and PI506582 averaged highest in 18:1 (>330 g per kg) among MG V PIs studied. Combining genes from these PIs and other sources with elevated 18:1 may be useful in developing higher oleic acid soybean genotypes.