Submitted to: Journal of Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/20/2008
Publication Date: 9/1/2008
Citation: Perez-Martinez, P., Lopez-Miranda, J., Cruz-Teno, C., Delgado-Lista, J., Jimenez-Gomez, Y., Fernandez, J.M., Gomez, M.J., Marin, C., Perez-Jimenez, F., Ordovas, J.M. 2008. Adiponectin Gene Variants are Associated with Insulin Sensitivity in Response to Dietary Fat Consumption in Caucasian Men. Journal of Nutrition. 138(9):1609-1614. Interpretive Summary: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing all over the world and the manifestation of this disease results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors, with diet being one of the most influential. Adiponectin is one of those genes that may be implicated in diabetes risk and several forms of this gene have been reported to increase or decrease the predisposition to the disease. However, the effects of these gene variants may be modulated by dietary factors. In order to test this hypothesis we conducted a study in which we fed healthy subjects carrying different variants of the adiponectin gene with diets differing in the amount and type of fat. At the end of each 4-wks diet period, we examined several plasma risk factors associated with diabetes risk. Our data show that subjects carrying a specific form of the adiponectin gene benefited the most from the consumption of diets enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids or carbohydrates as compared to diets rich in saturated fat. This new information will help in the identification of vulnerable populations and will guide proper dietary advice to prevent the expression of the disease .
Technical Abstract: Adiponectin (adipoQ) gene variants have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. Our aim was to examine whether the presence of several polymorphisms at the adipoQ gene locus (211391 G . A, 211377C.G, 45 T.G, and 276 G.T) influences the insulin sensitivity to dietary fat. Healthy volunteers (30 men and 29 women) consumed 3 diets for 4 wk each: an initial period during which all subjects consumed a SFA-rich diet (38% total fat, 20% SFA), followed by a carbohydrate-rich diet (CHO) (30% total fat, 55% carbohydrate) or a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich diet (38% total fat, 22% MUFA) following a randomized, crossover design. After participants consumed each diet, we tested peripheral insulin sensitivity with the insulin suppression test and measured plasma adiponectin concentrations. C/C homozygous men for the 211377 C . G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) had a significantly greater decrease in the steady-state plasma glucose concentrations when changing from the SFA-rich (8.9560.6 mmol/L) to the MUFA-rich (6.04 6 0.31 mmol/L) and CHO-rich (6.35 6 0.38 mmol/L) diets than did those carrying the minor G allele (SFA, 6.65 6 0.4 mmol/L; MUFA, 6.45 6 0.4 mmol/L; CHO, 5.83 6 0.3 mmol/L) (P sex x gene x diet interaction 1/4 0. 016). These differences did not occur in female participants. Furthermore, C/C men had lower plasma adiponectin concentrations than did C/C women (P sex x gene interaction 1/4 0.015), independently of the dietary fat consumed. None of the variables examined were significantly associated with 211426 A . G, 45T . G, or 276 G . T SNP. In conclusion, C/C homozygous men for the 211377 C . G SNP at adipoQ gene were significantly less insulin resistant after consumption of the MUFA- and CHO-rich diets compared with the SFA-rich diet. This information should help in the identification of vulnerable populations or persons who will benefit from more personalized and mechanism-based dietary recommendations.