Submitted to: Plant Physiology
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/5/2008
Publication Date: 11/1/2008
Publication URL: www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/reprint/148/3/1474
Citation: Morris, J., Tian, H., Park, S., Sreevidya, C.S., Ward, J.M., Hirschi, K.D. 2008. AtCCX3 is an Arabidopsis endomembrane H(+)-dependent K(+) transporter. Plant Physiology. 148(3):1474-1486. Interpretive Summary: The movement of nutrients and metals within cells helps regulate all aspects of plant growth. We have characterized a new type of transporter from plants that moves various metals and nutrients. We showed this motor resides predominately within cells (not on their surface). The ability to transport different kinds of nutrients is rather unique. This plasticity suggests a role in protecting cells from nutrient and metal overload. Future work will focus on utilizing this transporter to improve plant growth and the nutritional quality of foods.
Technical Abstract: The Arabidopsis ("Arabidopsis thaliana") cation calcium exchangers (CCXs) were recently identified as a subfamily of cation transporters; however, no plant "CCXs" have been functionally characterized. Here, we show that Arabidopsis AtCCX3 (At3g14070) and AtCCX4 (At1g54115) can suppress yeast mutants defective in Na(+), K(+), and Mn(2+) transport. We also report high-capacity uptake of (86)Rb(+) in tonoplast-enriched vesicles from yeast expressing "AtCCX3". Cation competition studies showed inhibition of (86)Rb(+) uptake in "AtCCX3" cells by excess Na(+), K(+), and Mn(2+). Functional epitope-tagged AtCCX3 fusion proteins were localized to endomembranes in plants and yeast. In Arabidopsis, "AtCCX3" is primarily expressed in flowers, while "AtCCX4" is expressed throughout the plant. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that expression of "AtCCX3" increased in plants treated with NaCl, KCl, and MnCl. Insertional mutant lines of "AtCCX3" and "AtCCX4" displayed no apparent growth defects; however, overexpression of "AtCCX3" caused increased Na(+) accumulation and increased (86)Rb(+) transport. Uptake of (86)Rb(+) increased in tonoplast-enriched membranes isolated from Arabidopsis lines expressing CCX3 driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Overexpression of "AtCCX3" in tobacco ("Nicotiana tabacum") produced lesions in the leaves, stunted growth, and resulted in the accumulation of higher levels of numerous cations. In summary, these findings suggest that AtCCX3 is an endomembrane-localized H(+)-dependent K(+) transporter with apparent Na(+) and Mn(2+) transport properties distinct from those of previously characterized plant transporters.