|WANG, MING LI|
Submitted to: Genes, Genomes, and Genomics
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/26/2009
Publication Date: 9/30/2009
Citation: Wang, M., Barkley, N.A., Jenkins, T.M. 2009. Microsatellite Markers in Plants and Insects Part I:Applications of Biotechnology. Genes, Genomes, and Genomics. 3(1):54-67.
Interpretive Summary: Mircosatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs)are short stretches of repeated DNA sequence which can be easily found throughout eukaryotic nuclear, chloroplasts, and mitochondrial genomes. Within the same species,the repeat length of microsatellites could be different among individuals. Therefore,microsatellites can be used as DNA markers for different kinds of genetic studies in plants, animals and insects.Futhermore, the microsatellites identified in one species may be applied in another genetically closely related species. Since microsatellites are highly polymorphic, relatively abundant, and easy to use, they have become the marker of choice for genetic studies. Microsatellites as DNA markers have been used in genome mapping, cultivar identification and marker-assisted selection,genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships, and population and evolutionary studies. In this article, we review applications of biotechnology on plants and insects in three areas: biotechnology of detection platforms, specific applications, and transferability of microsatellites.
Technical Abstract: Biotechnology is integral to the application of robust,high through-put detection of species-specific and species or genus-transferred microsatellites,or simple sequence report (SSR) markers.These short,tandemly repeated stretches of DNA of variable motifs and lenghts are relatively evenly distributed throughout eukaryotic nuclear,chloroplasts,and mitochondrial genomes. Microsatellites are inherited as Mendelian co-dominant markers that provide insights into non-Mendelian inheritance such as microsatellite evolution,replication,repair,recombination,and mutation.These characteristics have made microsatellites the genetic marker of choice for most technologically-driven applications in plant and insect genetic studies such as mapping, marker-assisted selections (MAS),and genetic diversity studies. MAS and linkage mapping analyses has greatly assisted breeding programs through the discovery and isolation of many important agronomic genes that underlie respective phenotypes.Linkage maps and genome sequences have provided comparative genomic insights in plants and insects regarding microsatellite distribution, occurrence,and adaptive phenotypic evolution.Furthermore,genomic synteny and SSR sequence conservation have not only provided maximum annotated information for model plants and insects,but have demonstrated cross-species/genera transferability,which is indicative of long evoluntionary history.It is the aim of this paper,therefore,to review biotechnology platforms and applications that have made SSR markers so useful as well as to discuss the impact of SSR transferability across species and/or genera.