Submitted to: Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2009
Publication Date: 7/12/2009
Citation: Jham, G.N., Moser, B.R., Shah, S.N., Holser, R.A., Dhingra, O.D., Vaughn, S.F., Berhow, M.A., Moser, J.K., Isbell, T., Holloway, R.K., Walter, E.L., Natalino, R., Anderson, J.A., Stelly, D.M. 2009. Wild Brazilian Mustard (Brassica Juncea L.) Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 86(1):917-926. Interpretive Summary: This research reveals that wild mustard oil is acceptable as an alternative non-food feedstock for biodiesel production. As a result of the current debates about fuel versus food issues, alternative non-food feedstocks for biodiesel production are an important area of current research. The objective of this study was to produce biodiesel from wild mustard oil and evaluate its fuel properties taking into consideration important biodiesel fuel standards. Wild mustard-biodiesel has excellent low temperature properties and cetane number as well as acceptable oxidative stability and viscosity when compared to the American biodiesel standard (ASTM D6751). These results will be important to biodiesel producers, distributors, and end-users (customers) because a new biodiesel fuel was described that exhibits favorable fuel properties. This research may ultimately improve market penetration, availability, and public perception of domestically produced agricultural fuels such as biodiesel, thus affording greater national independence from imported petroleum-based fuels.
Technical Abstract: Wild mustard (Brassica juncea L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 94 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and 0.50 wt % sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 deg C and an alcohol to oil molar ratio of 6:1. Wild mustard oil had a high content of erucic (13(Z)-docosenoic; 45.7 wt %) acid, with unsaturated constituents such as linoleic (9(Z),12(Z)-octodecadienoic; 14.2 wt %) and linolenic (9(Z),12(Z),15(Z)-octodecatrienoic; 13.0 wt %) acids comprising most of the remaining fatty acid profile. The derived cetane number of methyl esters (biodiesel) obtained from this oil was 61.1. The kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability (Rancimat method) of wild mustard oil methyl esters was 5.33 mm2/s (40 deg C) and 4.8 h (110 deg C), respectively. The cloud, pour and cold filter plugging points were 4, -21 and -3 deg C, respectively. Other fuel properties such as acid value, lubricity, free and total glycerol content, iodine value, Gardner color, specific gravity, as well as sulfur and phosphorous contents were also determined and are discussed in light of the biodiesel standards ASTM D6751 and EN 14214, where applicable. Also reported are the physical properties and composition of wild mustard oil, including tocopherol and phytosterol contents, along with identification of wild mustard collected in Brazil as Brassica juncea L. (2n=36) as opposed to the currently accepted Sinapis arvensis L. (2n=18) classification. In summary, wild mustard oil appears to be an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel production.