Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/16/2008
Publication Date: 1/25/2009
Citation: Vanderley, B.L., Ridpath, J.F., Sweiger, S.H. 2009. Comparison of Detection of BVDV Antigen in Various Types of Tissue and Fluid Samples Collected from Persistently Infected Cattle [abstract]. 4th U.S. BVDV Symposium. Poster No. 15. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Aim. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are economically important pathogens of cattle. Most new acute infections of BVDV are acquired from an animal persistently infected (PI) with BVDV. Surveillance programs typically rely on blood or skin biopsies for detection of PI cattle. PI animals have higher morbidity and mortality rates associated with secondary infections and frequently samples submitted from outbreaks of diseases due to bacteria or other viruses have been collected from PI animals. The purpose of this study was to compare BVDV detection in types of samples that might collected for diagnosis following disease outbreaks of unknown etiology. Methods. Seven types of samples were collected from 40 PI animals. The PI animals were identified based on two tests (antigen capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry) conducted on ear notch samples collected at least two weeks apart. The seven sample types were ear notches, nasal swabs, conjunctival swabs, oral swabs, rectal swabs, vaginal/preputial swabs, and a tail skin fold biopsy. Each type of sample (n=7) for each animal (n=40) was evaluated with a commercial antigen capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ACE) kit. Results. There was 98% accuracy rate in BVDV diagnosis, in comparison to IHC results, using ACE to detect BVDV in tail skin fold biopsies, nasal swabs and ear notch samples. Accuracy using other samples was as follows; vaginal/preputial swabs (90%), conjunctival swabs (63%), rectal swabs (10%), and oral swabs (8%). Conclusions. Testing of tail skin fold biopsies, nasal swabs and ear notch samples resulted in reproducible, reliable results. Testing of vaginal/preputial swabs was accurate 90% of the time. In contrast, based on this study, testing of conjunctival swabs, rectal swabs and oral swabs missed >30% to >90% of the PI animals tested.