|Yokoyama, Wallace - Wally|
Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/12/2008
Publication Date: 7/1/2009
Citation: Prasopsunwattana, N., Omary, M.B., Arndt, E.A., Cooke, P.H., Flores, R.A., Yokoyama, W.H., Toma, A., Chongcham, S., Lee, S.P. 2009. Particle Size Effects on the Quality of Flour Tortillas Enriched with Whole Grain Waxy Barley. Cereal Chemistry. 86(4):438-451 Interpretive Summary: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of particle size of whole barley flour on the quality and consumer acceptability of flour tortillas. Characteristics of the flour tortillas and sensory evaluations were done. Tortillas made with the largest WBF particle size were the most similar with refined bread flour. To the author's knowledge, no similar study has been published todate.
Technical Abstract: Wheat tortillas were enriched with whole barley flour (WBF) of different particle sizes including 237 micros (regular-R), 131 micros (intermediate-IM), and 68 micros (microground-MG). Topographical and fluorescent microstructure images of flours, doughs and tortillas were examined. Flours and tortillas were analyzed for color, protein, ash, starch, moisture, and Beta-glucan content. Farinograph testing was conducted on the flour blends. Water activity and texture analyses of tortillas were conducted. A 9-point hedonic scale was used by ninety-five untrained panelists to evaluate tortilla appearance, color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability. Two commercial products (CP) were included in some analyses. As WBF particle size decreased, color was lighter, protein, moisture content and mixing stability decreased; ash, starch content, water absorption and Farinograph peak time increased; and Beta-glucan content was constant. WBF tortillas were darker than the control (C), while IM and MG tortillas has lower peak forces than C. No flavor differences were reported among C, R, and MG tortillas but higher scores were given to both CP in all attributes tested. Tortillas made with the largest WBF particle size (R) were the most similar in protein content, texture and flavor compared to C tortillas made with refined bread flour.