Submitted to: Journal of Environmental Quality
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/3/2010
Publication Date: 9/1/2011
Citation: Yates, S.R., Knuteson, J., Zheng, W., Wang, Q. 2011. Effect of organic material on field-scale emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene. Journal of Environmental Quality. 40(5):1470-1479. Interpretive Summary: A field experiment was conducted to determine if composted municipal green waste added to surface soil would lead to lower 1,3-D emissions to the atmosphere compared to traditional fumigation practices. The field experiment was conducted to measure the volatilization of Telone (1,3-dichloropropene, 1,3-D) after shank application at a depth of 45 cm. A year prior to the field experiment, the field received 300 tons/acre of composed municipal green waste which was incorporated into the upper 15 cm of soil. After soil fumigation, the volatilization rate was measured and total emissions of 1,3-D were found to be from 3-8% of the applied chemical. Several studies conducted by other researchers has shown that typical 1,3-D volatilization rates exceeds 25 % of the applied chemical, and may be as high as 30-40%. A laboratory study that used the field soil found that the emissions matched closely to the field observations. For soil collected in an adjacent field, that did not receive composted municipal green waste material, emissions of 1,3-D were approximately 30-35%. This study is unique in that the effect of composted municipal green waste on emissions of 1,3-D has been quantified. These results are also useful in providing a simple, cost-effective, method to reduce volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions to the atmosphere. This methodology also provides municipalities with a disposal mechanism for excess quantities of green waste material, and provides growers with a product that improves soil tilth and soil nutrient levels. This research will help growers to meet future regulations on VOC emissions as a result of EPA’s ambient air quality ozone standards.
Technical Abstract: Soil fumigation is important for growing many fruits and vegetable crops, but fumigant emissions may contaminate the atmosphere. A large-scale fi eld experiment was initiated to test the hypothesis that adding composted municipal green waste to the soil surface in an agricultural fi eld would reduce atmospheric emissions of the 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) after shank injection at a 133 kg ha-1 application rate. Th ree micrometeorological methods were used to obtain fumigant fl ux density and cumulative emission values. Th e volatilization rate was measured continuously for 16 d, and the daily peak volatilization rates for the three methods ranged from 12 to 24 µg m-2 s-1. Th e total 1,3-D mass that volatilized to the atmosphere was approximately 14 to 68 kg, or 3 to 8% of the applied active ingredient. Th is represents an approximately 75 to 90% reduction in the total emissions compared with other recent fi eld, fi eld-plot, and laboratory studies. Signifi cant reductions in the volatilization of 1,3-D may be possible when composted municipal green waste is applied to an agricultural fi eld. Th is methodology also provides a benefi cial use and disposal mechanism for composted vegetative material.