|Lay, Jr, Donald - Don|
Submitted to: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/21/2006
Publication Date: 9/1/2006
Citation: Moulton, K., Lovell, F., Williams, E., Ryan, P., Lay Jr, D.C., Jansen, D., Willard, S.T. 2006. Use of Glycerol as an Optical Clearing Agent for Enhancing Photonic Transference and Detection of Salmonella typhimurium Through Porcine Skin. Journal of Biomedical Optics. 11(5):054027-1 to 054027-8.
Interpretive Summary: Imaging in the living system becomes problematic due to the absorptive and scattering properties of skin in response to light. The objective of this study was to evaluate glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide to increase photonic detection of transformed Salmonella typhimurium (S. typh-lux; i.e., light emitting Salmonella) through porcine skin. Our data showed that both agents alone and in combination were effective optical clearing agents on porcine skin (2–3 mm thick) to increase detection of emitted photons from Salmonella isolates. Clearing agents such as these have the potential to minimize effects of porcine skin tissue as one of the photon transmittance barriers (i.e., skin, fat, muscle, and visceral tissues) which would permit greater resolution in tracking bacterial pathogens in vivo.
Technical Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate glycerol (GLY) and GLY + dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to increase photonic detection of transformed Salmonella typhimurium (S. typh-lux) through porcine skin. Skin was placed on 96-well plates containing S. typh-lux, imaged (5 min) using a CCD camera, and then completely immersed in PBS, GLY, DMSO, GLY+DMSO in a dose- and time-dependent manner and re-imaged (5 min). The percent of photonic emissions detected (treated or untreated skin relative to no skin controls) was used for analysis. Treatment for 4 h with 50% GLY-PBS and 50:30:20% GLY:DMSO:PBS increased photonic detection compared to untreated skin, 100% PBS, or 30:70% DMSO:PBS. Treatment with 50% GLY in the presence of 20 and 40% DMSO (v/v with PBS) increased photonic detection compared to 50% GLY alone and in the presence of 10% DMSO: 50% GLY (v/v with PBS). Data indicate that GLY and GLY+DMSO are effective optical clearing agents on porcine skin (2–3 mm thick) when treated for 4 h to increase detection of emitted photons. Clearing agents such as GLY have the potential to minimize effects of porcine skin tissue as one of the photon transmittance barriers (i.e., skin, fat, muscle, and visceral tissues) in vivo.