Submitted to: Food and Bioprocess Technology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/26/2009
Publication Date: 2/20/2009
Citation: Wesley, I.V., Muraoka, W.T. 2009. TIME OF ENTRY OF SALMONELLA AND CAMPYLOBACTER INTO THE TURKEY BROODER HOUSE. Food and Bioprocess Technology. 4:616-623.
Interpretive Summary: Campylobacter and Salmonella are major foodborne pathogens whose transmission to humans is via consumption of contaminated poultry. We determined when these two bacterial pathogens enter commercial turkey flocks. We observed that young turkey poults are colonized with Salmonella by the first week of life whereas Campylobacter enters the flock later by the 2nd week. Because the flock was not thriving and had been medicated, we determined antimicrobial resistance profiles and compared them with patterns obtained from turkeys in other Midwest flocks. In addition, genotyping with PFGE showed that the Salmonella populations changed from day 5 to day 33 when the birds were moved to the finisher house.
Technical Abstract: Earlier we reported the prevalence of Campylobacter (> 90%) and Salmonella (33%) in turkeys at slaughter. Herein we describe studies to estimate the time of entry of Campylobacter and Salmonella into the brooder house, which is the first stage of commercial turkey production. In Trial 1, birds (100 per time point) were monitored by conventional culture at three intervals (0, 9 and 16 days of age). Campylobacter spp. were not detected in poults at day of hatch; Salmonella was isolated from the ceca (3.9%) and yolk sac (0.1%). By day 9, Salmonella were frequently isolated from the ceca (55%) and small intestine (45%) while Campylobacter was not cultured. By day 16, the prevalence of Salmonella in the ceca (21%) and small intestine (5.1%) had declined; Campylobacter was infrequently isolated from either the ceca (2%) or small intestine (3%). In Trial 2, poults (50 per time point at 5, 20 and 33 days of age) were monitored for Campylobacter by real-time PCR and for Salmonella by conventional culture. Whereas Campylobacter was not detected by real-time PCR in the ceca of 5-day old birds, it was detected on days 20 (92%) and 33 (90%). In contrast, Salmonella was isolated from young birds at day 5 (98%), 20 (98%), and 33 (98%), after which time the turkeys were moved to the finisher house. At slaughter at 138 days, Salmonella prevalence in the ceca had declined (4.5%) in contrast to the prevalence of Campylobacter (92%). Antimicrobial sensitivity profiles of the Salmonella isolates indicated an increase of sulfonamide resistant isolates throughout the brooder stage. Genotyping by PFGE analysis of Salmonella (45 isolates per sampling time) indicated fluctuating populations as the birds matured.